RULES AND REGULATIONS
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
[22 PA. CODE CH. 4]
Academic Standards and Assessment for Science and Technology and Environment and Ecology
[32 Pa.B. 17]
The State Board of Education (Board) amends Chapter 4 (relating to academic standards and assessment) to add academic standards in science and technology and environment and ecology, to read as set forth in Annex A, under authority of the Public School Code of 1949 (24 P. S. §§ 1-101--27-2702).
Notice of proposed rulemaking was published at 31 Pa.B. 2136 (April 21, 2001) with an invitation to submit written comments.
These final-form regulations add academic standards in science and technology and environment and ecology. The purpose of adding these requirements is to specify academic standards to be achieved by students enrolled in the public schools (including public charter schools) of this Commonwealth.
Comments and Responses
More than 120 individuals and organizations offered comments on the proposed rulemaking. Fourteen letters were received from members of the House and Senate Education Committees. In addition, the Independent Regulatory Review Commission (IRRC) offered detailed comments on the proposed rulemaking.
Evolution and the Theory of Evolution
In the proposed rulemaking, Standards 3.3.10.D and 3.3.12.D require what must be taught about evolution and the theory of evolution. A wide range of opinions and suggestions for change regarding evolution were expressed by public commentators and members of the House and Senate Education Committees. The majority of public commentators objected to the wording of these standards in the proposed rulemaking and stated that the theory of evolution was inappropriately singled out for critical analyses. They suggested that these standards would permit or even encourage schools to teach creationism or intelligent design. Others supported the wording in the proposed rulemaking because they believed that it would encourage healthy skepticism regarding evolution. Some suggested that schools be required to teach other theories of evolution, including intelligent design. Several suggested that it may be impossible to separate religious beliefs from the teaching of evolution and recommended that all mention of evolution regarding the origin of life be removed from the document. IRRC questioned the intent of these two standards and suggested that they duplicate standards in Section 3.2 Inquiry and Design that sets forth requirements for the examination of new data and critical evaluation of existing scientific theories.
Despite the reading that many had of these standards in the proposed rulemaking, the Board did not intend to encourage the teaching of creationism or intelligent design; standards were written to encourage critical thinking by students. To clarify this intent, a number of revisions have been made in these final-form regulations. The descriptor calling for students to analyze records and studies ''that support or do not support the theory of evolution'' in Standard 3.3.10.D has been substantially changed to call for students to analyze studies ''relevant to the theory of evolution.'' The descriptor ''Analyze the impact of new scientific facts on the theory of evolution'' in Standard 3.3.12.D has been eliminated in these final-form regulations.
To reinforce the importance the Board places on critical thinking in the teaching of scientific theories, changes were made in Standard 3.2.12.A by specifying a number of theories (including the theory of evolution) which might be critically evaluated to meet the standard ''Evaluate the nature of scientific and technological knowledge.'' In addition, the theory of evolution has been added as an example in Standards 3.1.10.E and 3.1.12.E in Section 3.1 Unifying Themes.
Because of the detailed attention to evolution in comments received by the Board, there were many suggestions to clarify and improve the wording of the individual standards in Section 3.2 Biology that deal with evolutionary concepts. As a result, specific changes have been made in these final-form regulations to Standards 3.3.4.C, 3.3.7.C and 3.3.12.C regarding inherited characteristics, gene mutation and natural selection. Specific changes were also made to Standards 3.3.7.D, 3.3.10.D and 3.3.12.D regarding individual differences, population growth, gene frequency and natural selection.
Clarifying the Meaning of Individual Standards
Several changes were recommended by commentators, members of the House Education Committee and IRRC to make individual standards more precise and clear. Standard 3.1.4.D in the proposed rulemaking states, ''Describe scale as a ratio (such as, pipe fittings).'' Members of the House Education Committee and IRRC commented that the use of ''pipe fittings'' as an example is confusing and recommended the use of model scales or map scales. The final-form regulations refer to ''map scales'' in Standard 3.1.4.D.
Standard 3.2.10.A in the proposed rulemaking stated, ''Know that science is limited to the study of observable aspects of the world and universe.'' Commentators and IRRC noted that the term ''observable'' could be interpreted to mean ''directly visible.'' IRRC recommended that since not all scientific phenomena can be ''seen'' directly, the term observable should be defined in Section IX Glossary. In response to these comments, the statement has been changed in the final-form regulations to state, ''Know that science uses both direct and indirect observation means to study the world and the universe.''
Standard 3.4.4.D required fourth graders to ''Recognize the earth's place in the solar system'' and to ''explain (such as, days, seasons), major lunar phases and eclipses.'' Commentators and IRRC commented that this requirements are too abstract for fourth grade students to understand. IRRC noted that the proposal did not specify the depth of understanding of these concepts in the fourth grade and recommended that this be specified in the final-form rulemaking. After considering the comments, the Board did not elect to make changes to the Standard 3.4.4.D. Information and examples of the level of understanding required by this standard and others will be contained in the ''Classrooms Connections'' kits, other training and instructional materials and parent information.
Standard 3.5.4.D. in the proposed rulemaking required fourth grade students to ''describe locations of fresh and salt water'' in or near Pennsylvania. Also, 10th and 12th grade standards (Standards 3.5.10.D and 3.5.12.D) required students to compare sources of water and development of water use in Pennsylvania. Commentators and IRRC commented that these standards should not be limited to bodies of water in Pennsylvania. These final-form regulations revise Standards 3.5.4.D, 3.5.10.D and 3.5.12.D to more generally refer to sources of water and development of water use, thus not restricting study to Pennsylvania alone.
Standard 3.5.7.C in the proposed rulemaking, relating to meteorology for seventh graders, required students to ''Identify cloud types, wind directions and barometric pressure changes are associated with weather patterns. . . .'' Commentators and IRRC suggested that the comparable fourth grade standard should expect students to identify cloud types as a precursor for the seventh grade standard. The final-form regulations add an expectation for students to identify cloud types in Standard 3.5.4.C.
Commentators, members of the House Education Committee and IRRC stated the proposed standards did not adequately address the agricultural sciences as required by Chapter 4 or reflect the importance of agriculture and agricultural sciences in Pennsylvania. As a result, the Board has made a number of changes in these final-form regulations.
In the Science and Technology standards, language has been added to Section 3.6 Technology Education, specifically under the descriptors for Standards 3.6.7.A, 3.6.10.A and 3.6.12.A. Taken together these descriptors call for students to understand, describe and apply agricultural sciences and their impact and relationship to biotechnology. In Section 3.8 Science, Technology and Human Endeavors, additional descriptors have been added to Standards 3.8.7.B, 3.8.10.B and 3.8.12.B that call for students to identify, explain, assess and apply knowledge of agricultural sciences in meeting human needs.
In the Environment and Ecology standards, new standards in the final-form regulations have been added to Section 4.4 Agriculture and Society specific to agriculture and agricultural sciences. New Standards 4.4.4.B, 4.4.7.B, 4.4.10.B and 4.4.12.B require students to identify the role of the sciences in Pennsylvania agriculture, investigate how agricultural science has recognized the various soil types, assess the influence of agricultural science on farming practices and describe how agricultural science has influenced biotechnology. Each of these new standards also includes detailed descriptors.
IRRC suggested that Standard 4.8.12.B in the proposed rulemaking that required students to ''analyze how technology has improved agricultural productivity'' was more consistent with the standards under Section 4.4.12 relating to Agriculture and Society. In these final-form regulations, the standard has been eliminated in favor of more detailed standards in Section 4.4 that encompass concepts of agricultural productivity.
Commentators and members of the House Education Committee raised concerns about the implementation of these science standards. First, there is a concern that these standards will change the current organization and sequencing of science courses and curricula at the high school level because there are standards for biology, chemistry, earth sciences and the like at both the 10th and 12th grade levels. It is anticipated that each district will be reviewing its current curriculum and will modify it where necessary to ensure that it is organized to enable students to meet these standards. Based on discussions with teachers and curriculum directors around the State, these standards will not require courses in each of the science disciplines each year; they will, however, encourage more integration in the science curriculum across the disciplines.
Second, a concern was expressed about when State assessments in science would be administered. Currently, state assessments in reading and mathematics are administered in grades 5, 8 and 11 while assessments in writing are administered in grades 6, 9 and 11. Science assessments will be administered based on the 4th, 7th and 10th grade standards. It is anticipated that science assessments will begin in the 2002-03 school year.
Changes for Clarity
IRRC recommended that the table of contents for both sets of standards list subject areas and categories with the same capital letters that label them in the text of the standards. That change was made in these final-form regulations to Section VII Table of Contents and Section X Table of Contents. IRRC recommended that the Section 3.2 Inquiry and Design, be changed to ''Inquiry and Experimental Design'' to accurately reflect its attention to experimental design. After considering the comment, the Board elected to retain the title as ''Inquiry and Design'' because the section relates not solely to experimental design, but also to technological processes, applications and design.
Misspellings, Punctuation Errors and Typographical Errors
The following corrections to the final-form as recommended by IRRC are made in these final-form regulations. ''Ecology'' was misspelled in the title of Section X Table of Contents in the Pennsylvania Bulletin version of the proposed rulemaking and is corrected in these final-form regulations. A typographical error occurred in the second sentence of the descriptor for Section 3.2 Inquiry and Design as published in the Pennsylvania Bulletin. These final-form regulations change the period to a comma after the word ''estimating.'' An additional typographical error is corrected in the first sentence of Standard 3.2.10.C where ''to'' is changed to ''of.''
Commentators and the IRRC suggested that additional terms used in the text of the standards be defined in the glossaries of the standards found in Sections IX and XII. Terms used in the science and technology standards that are now defined in these final-form regulations are ''evolution,'' ''fact,'' ''hypothesis,'' ''law,'' ''theory'' and ''theory of evolution.'' Terms used in the environment and ecology standards that are now defined in these final-form regulations are ''commodities,'' ''consumer,'' ''decomposer,'' ''endangered species,'' ''environment,'' ''extinction,'' ''hazardous waste,'' ''regulation'' and ''shredder.'' In addition, a more detailed definition of ''risk management'' has been added.
These final-form regulations affect the students and professional employees of the public schools of this Commonwealth (including intermediate units, area vocational-technical schools, public charter and alternative schools).
Cost and Paperwork Estimates
Costs to implement these final-form regulations may include curriculum development and the professional development of teachers. These costs vary by school district. Curriculum development is an ongoing activity for schools and is typically part of their normal budgeting. Costs associated with aligning curricula with these standards at the local level will be minimized by the following efforts: technical assistance in curriculum development provided by Department staff; detailed implementation kits provided to school districts by the Department; and the Standards Implementation Project which funds Intermediate Unit services throughout this Commonwealth supporting the implementation of these and other standards. The majority of the cost to develop implementation kits was incurred in the previous fiscal year. Current year funds available to the Department to support curriculum alignment is $225,000.
Professional development of teachers is an ongoing activity for schools and is addressed in the normal budgeting of school districts. Specific programs designed to support the implementation of these standards will minimize any financial impact on school districts. These programs include professional development provided through the Standards Implementation Project and Governor's Academies for Teachers (currently provided in the Life Sciences, Technology, Physical Sciences and Environment and Ecology). In addition, the act of November 23, 1999 (P. L. 529, No. 48) (Act 48) establishing a requirement for all educators to engage in continuing professional education, further requires the Department to provide 40 hours of professional development annually at no cost to teachers. Online professional development courses are being developed for use in the current year for science and technology and environment and ecology. Current year funds available to the Department to support professional development is $730,000.
These final-form regulations will become effective upon final publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin.
The effectiveness of Chapter 4 will be reviewed by the Board every 4 years, in accordance with the Board's policy and practice respecting all regulations promulgated by the Board. Thus, no sunset date is necessary.
Under Section 5(a) of the Regulatory Review Act (71 P. S. § 745.5(a)), on April 11, 2001, the Board submitted a copy of the proposed rulemaking published at 31 Pa.B. 2136 to IRRC and to the Chairpersons of the House and Senate Committees on Education for review and comment.
In compliance with section 5(c) of the Regulatory Review Act, the Board also provided IRRC and the Committees with copies of the comments received as well as other documentation. In preparing the final-form regulations, the Board considered the comments received from IRRC, the Committees and the public.
Under section 5.1(d) of the Regulatory Review Act (71 P. S. § 745.5a(d)), the final-form regulations were approved by the Senate Education Committee on October 16, 2001, and approved by the House Education Committee on October 17, 2001. IRRC met on November 15, 2001, and approved the final-form regulations in accordance with section 5.1(e) of the Regulatory Review Act.
The official responsible for information on these final-form regulations is Peter H. Garland, Executive Director of the State Board of Education, 333 Market Street, Harrisburg, PA 17126-0333, (717) 787-3787 or TDD (717) 787-7367.
The Department finds that:
(1) Public notice of the intention to adopt these final-form regulations was given under sections 201 and 202 of the act of July 31, 1968 (P. L. 769, No. 240) (45 P. S. §§ 1201 and 1202) and the regulations promulgated thereunder in 1 Pa. Code §§ 7.1 and 7.2.
(2) A public comment period was provided as required by law and all comments were considered.
(3) The final-form regulations are necessary and appropriate for the administration of the act.
The Board, acting under the authorizing statute, orders that:
(a) The regulations of the Board, 22 Pa. Code Chapter 4, are amended by adding Appendix B to read as set forth at Annex A.
(b) The Executive Director will submit this order and Annex A to the Office of General Counsel and the Office of Attorney General for review and approval as to legality and form as required by law.
(c) The Executive Director of the Board shall certify this order and Annex A and deposit them with the Legislative Reference Bureau as required by law.
(d) This order is effective upon final publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin.
PETER H. GARLAND,
(Editor's Note: For the text of the order of the Independent Regulatory Review Commission relating to this document, see 31 Pa.B. 6587 (December 1, 2001).)
Fiscal Note: Fiscal Note 6-273 remains valid for the final adoption of the subject regulations.
TITLE 22. EDUCATION
PART I. STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
CHAPTER 4. ACADEMIC STANDARDS AND ASSESSEMENT
ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY
Academic Standards for Science and Technology
VII. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction VIII. THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS Unifying Themes 3.1. A. Systems
C. Patterns D. Scale
E. Change Inquiry and Design 3.2. A. Nature of Scientific Knowledge
B. Process Knowledge C. Scientific Method
D. Problem Solving in Technology
Biological Sciences 3.3. A. Living Forms
B. Structure and Function C. Inheritance
Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics 3.4. A. Matter B. Energy
C. Forces and Motion D. Astronomy
Earth Sciences 3.5. A. Land Forms and Processes
B. Resources C. Meteorology
D. Hydrology and Oceanography Technology Education 3.6. A. Biotechnology
B. Information Technology C. Physical Technologies
(Construction, Manufacturing, and Transportation) Technological Devices 3.7. A. Tools
B. Instruments C. Computer Operations
D. Computer Software E. Computer Communication Systems Science, Technology and Human Endeavors 3.8. A. Constraints
B. Meeting Human Needs
C. Consequences and Impacts Glossary IX.
This document describes what students should know and be able to do in the following eight areas:
* 3.1. Unifying Themes of Science
* 3.2. Inquiry and Design
* 3.3. Biological Sciences
* 3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
* 3.5. Earth Sciences
* 3.6. Technology Education
* 3.7. Technological Devices
* 3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors
These standards describe what students should know and be able to do by the end of fourth, seventh, tenth and twelfth grade. In addition, these standards reflect the increasing complexity and sophistication that students are expected to achieve as they progress through school.
This document avoids repetition, making an obvious progression across grade levels less explicit. Teachers shall expect that students know and can apply the concepts and skills expressed at the preceding level. Consequently, previous learning is reinforced but not retaught.
Standards are arranged by categories, for example, 3.5 Earth Science. Under each category are standard statements that are preceded by a capital letter; for example, in 3.1 Unifying Themes, grade 10.B, ''Describe concepts of models as a way to predict and understand science and technology.'' Following the standard statements are bulleted standard descriptors, which explain the nature and scope of the standard. Descriptors specify the nature of the standard and the level of complexity needed in meeting that standard in a proficient manner. Descriptors serve to benchmark the standard statement. Curriculum, instruction and assessment should focus on meeting the standard statement. Technology education, computer applications and science are separate curricular areas. Meeting standards should be approached as a collaborative effort among all curricular areas.
The following descriptors explain the intent of each standard category:
3.1. Unifying Themes Unifying themes of science and technology provide big ideas that integrate with significant concepts. There are only a few fundamental concepts and processes that form the framework upon which science and technology knowledges are organized--motion and forces, energy, structure of matter, change over time and machines. These themes create the context through which the content of the disciplines can be taught and are emphasized in each standard. 3.2. Inquiry and Design The nature of science and technology is characterized by applying process knowledge that enables students to become independent learners. These skills include observing, classifying, inferring, predicting, measuring, computing, estimating, communicating, using space/time relationships, defining operationally, raising questions, formulating hypotheses, testing and experimenting, designing controlled experiments, recognizing variables, manipulating variables, interpreting data, formulating models, designing models, and producing solutions. Everyone can use them to solve real-life problems. These process skills are developed across the grade levels and differ in the degree of sophistication, quantitative nature and application to the content. 3.3. Biological Sciences Biology concerns living things, their appearance, different types of life, the scope of their similarities and differences, where they live and how they live. Living things are made of the same components as all other matter, involve the same kinds of transformations of energy and move using the same basic kinds of forces as described in chemistry and physics standards. Through the study of the diversity of life, students learn to understand how life has changed over a long period of time. This great variety of life forms continues to change even today as genetic instructions within cells are passed from generation to generation, yet the amazing integrity of most species remain. 3.4. Physical Science Chemistry and Physics Physics and chemistry involve the study of objects and their properties. Students examine changes to materials during mixing, freezing, heating and dissolving and then learn how to observe and measure results. In chemistry students study the relationship between matter, atomic structure and its activity. Laboratory investigations of the properties of substances and their changes through a range of chemical interactions provide a basis for students to understand atomic theory and a variety of reaction types and their applications in business, agriculture and medicine. Physics deepens the understanding of the structure and properties of materials and includes atoms, waves, light, electricity, magnetism and the role of energy, forces and motion. 3.5. Earth Sciences The dynamics of earth science include the studies of forces of nature that build the earth and wear down the earth. The understanding of these concepts uses principles from physical sciences, geography and mathematics. 3.6. Technology Education Technology education is the use of accumulated knowledge to process resources to meet human needs and improve the quality of life. Students develop the ability to select and correctly use materials, tools, techniques and processes to answer questions, understand explanations and solve problems encountered in real life situations. These overriding themes require students to design, create, use, evaluate and modify systems of Biotechnologies, Information Technologies, and Physical Technologies. 3.7. Technological Devices Students use tools to observe, measure, move and make things. New technological tools and techniques make it possible to enact far-reaching changes in our world. Technology enhances the students' abilities to identify problems and determine solutions. Computers play an integral role in every day life by extending our abilities to collect, analyze and communicate information and ideas. 3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors Scientific knowledge and societal needs often create a demand for new technology. Conversely, new technology advances scientific knowledge. Both influence society through the impact of their products and processes.
What Is Science? Any study of science includes the search for understanding the natural world and facts, principles, theories and laws that have been verified by the scientific community and are used to explain and predict natural phenomena and events.
Acquiring scientific knowledge involves constructing hypotheses using observation and knowledge in the content area in order to formulate useful questions that provoke scientific inquiry. As a result of repeated, rigorous testing over time and applying multiple perspectives to a problem, consistent information emerges. A theory describes this verifiable event or phenomena. Theories are powerful elements in science and are used to predict other events. As theories lose their ability to predict, they are modified, expanded or generalized or incorporated into a broader theory.
Knowledge of what science is incorporates carefully developed and integrated components:
* Nature of science--the ways in which scientists search for answers to questions and explanations of observations about the natural world; includes process knowledge of observing, classifying, inferring, predicting, measuring, hypothesizing, experimenting and interpreting data
* Unifying themes of science--concepts, generalizations and principles that result from and lead to inquiry
* Knowledge--facts, principles, theories and laws verifiable through scientific inquiry by the world community of scientists; includes physics, chemistry, earth science and biological sciences
* Inquiry--an intellectual process of logic that includes verification of answers to questions about and explanations for natural objects, events and phenomena
* Process skills--Recognition by students how knowledge is acquired and applied in science by observing, classifying, inferring, predicting, measuring, computing, estimating, communicating, using space/time relationships, defining operationally, formulating hypotheses, testing and experimenting, designing controlled experiments, recognizing variables, manipulating variables, interpreting data, formulating models, designing models and producing solutions.
* Problem solving--application of concepts to problems of human adaptation to the environment that often leads to recognition of new problems; has social implications and leads to personal decision-making and action; a process which forms the link for interactions between scientific and technological results or findings; involves operational definitions, recognizing variables, formulating models and asking questions
* Scientific thinking--the disposition to suspend judgment, not make decisions and not take action until results, explanations or answers have been tested and verified with information.
What Is Technology Education? It is the means by which we teach technology. Technology is a body of knowledge separate from but related to the sciences, with specific content, curriculum and specific certification requirements. Technology is the application of tools, materials, processes and systems by humans to solve problems and provide benefits to humankind. We use technology in an attempt to improve our environment. These improvements may relate to survival needs (e.g., food, shelter, defense) or they may relate to human aspirations (e.g., knowledge, art, control). They can include unexpected benefits, unexpected costs and unexpected risks.
Technology education involves a broad spectrum of knowledge and activities. Effective technology education combines knowledge of content, process and skills to provide students with a holistic approach to learning. Technology education offers unique opportunities to apply numerous academic concepts through practical, hands-on applications. Instructional technology, on the other hand, deals specifically with use of computers and different software to solve problems and communicate effectively. Knowledge of content, process and skills should be used together to effectively engage students and promote a complete understanding of the sciences, related technologies and their interrelationship. The relationship between science and technology is one where science builds principles or theories and technology provides the practical application of those principles or theories.
Knowledge of content, process and skills in technology involves learning processes that include these components:
* Methods of designing and developing solutions
* Standards for selecting and using appropriate materials, tools and processes
* Experimental and design specifications for testing and evaluating solutions
* Criteria for judging the performance and impact of the solutions
* Evaluating the impact of modifying a system to improve performance.
Technology education can be divided into three main systems that include biotechnological, informational, and physical technologies:
Biotechnological Systems Informational Systems Physical Systems Bioconversion Computer-Aided Drafting/Design (CADD) Automation/Robotics Bioprocessing Drafting & Design Computer-Aided and Integrated Environment Desktop Publishing Manufacturing (CAM/CIM) Ergonomics Electronic Communications Construction Engineering/Design Systems Engineering/Design Systems Electronic Circuits/Control Systems Research and Development Graphic Communications Energy Systems Communications Systems Architecture and Community Planning Multimedia Technology Engineering/Design Systems Networking Systems Enterprise Organization & Operation Research and Development Manufacturing Video and Television Production Material Processes World Wide Web Design & Publishing Research and Development Transportation
3.1. Unifying Themes 3.1.4. GRADE 4 3.1.7. GRADE 7 3.1.10. GRADE 10 3.1.12. GRADE 12 Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . . A. Know that natural and human-made objects are made up of parts.
* Identify and describe what parts make up a system.
* Identify system parts that are natural and human-made (e.g., ball point pen, simple electrical circuits, plant anatomy).
* Describe the purpose of analyzing systems.
* Know that technologies include physical technology systems (e.g., construction, manufacturing, transportation), informational systems and biochemical-related systems.
A. Explain the parts of a simple system and their relationship to each other.
* Describe a system as a group of related parts that work together to achieve a desired result (e.g., digestive system).
* Explain the importance of order in a system.
* Distinguish between system inputs, system processes and system outputs.
* Distinguish between open loop and closed loop systems.
* Apply systems analysis to solve problems.
A. Discriminate among the concepts of systems, subsystems, feedback and control in solving technological problems.
* Identify the function of subsystems within a larger system (e.g., role of thermostat in an engine, pressure switch).
* Describe the interrelationships among inputs, processes, outputs, feedback and control in specific systems.
* Explain the concept of system redesign and apply it to improve technological systems.
* Apply the universal systems model to illustrate specific solutions and troubleshoot specific problems.
* Analyze and describe the effectiveness of systems to solve specific problems.
A. Apply concepts of systems, subsystems, feedback and control to solve complex technological problems.
* Apply knowledge of control systems concept by designing and modeling control systems that solve specific problems.
* Apply systems analysis to predict results.
* Analyze and describe the function, interaction and relationship among subsystems and the system itself.
* Compare and contrast several systems that could be applied to solve a single problem.
* Evaluate the causes of a system's inefficiency.
B. Know models as useful simplifications of objects or processes.
* Identify different types of models.
* Identify and apply models as tools for prediction and insight.
* Apply appropriate simple modeling tools and techniques.
* Identify theories that serve as models (e.g., molecules).
B. Describe the use of models as an application of scientific or technological concepts.
* Identify and describe different types of models and their functions.
* Apply models to predict specific results and observations (e.g., population growth, effects of infectious organisms).
* Explain systems by outlining a system's relevant parts and its purpose and/or designing a model that illustrates its function.
B. Describe concepts of models as a way to predict and understand science and technology.
* Distinguish between different types of models and modeling techniques and apply their appropriate use in specific applications (e.g., kinetic gas theory, DNA).
* Examine the advantages of using models to demonstrate processes and outcomes (e.g., blue print analysis, structural stability).
* Apply mathematical models to science and technology.
B. Apply concepts of models as a method to predict and understand science and technology.
* Evaluate technological processes by collecting data and applying mathematical models (e.g., process control).
* Apply knowledge of complex physical models to interpret data and apply mathematical models.
* Appraise the importance of computer models in interpreting science and technological systems.
C. Illustrate patterns that regularly occur and reoccur in nature.
* Identify observable patterns (e.g., growth patterns in plants, crystal shapes in minerals, climate, structural patterns in bird feathers).
* Use knowledge of natural patterns to predict next occurrences (e.g., seasons, leaf patterns, lunar phases).
C. Identify patterns as repeated processes or recurring elements in science and technology.
* Identify different forms of patterns and use them to group and classify specific objects.
* Identify repeating structure patterns.
* Identify and describe patterns that occur in physical systems (e.g., construction, manufacturing, transportation), informational systems and biochemical-related systems.
C. Apply patterns as repeated processes or recurring elements in science and technology.
* Examine and describe recurring patterns that form the basis of biological classification, chemical periodicity, geological order and astronomical order.
* Examine and describe stationary physical patterns.
* Examine and describe physical patterns in motion.
C. Assess and apply patterns in science and technology.
* Assess and apply recurring patterns in natural and technological systems.
* Compare and contrast structure and function relationships as they relate to patterns.
* Assess patterns in nature using mathematical formulas.
D. Know that scale is an important attribute of natural and human made objects, events and phenomena.
* Identify the use of scale as it relates to the measurement of distance, volume and mass.
* Describe scale as a ratio (e.g., map scales).
* Explain the importance of scale in producing models and apply it to a model.
D. Explain scale as a way of relating concepts and ideas to one another by some measure.
* Apply various applications of size and dimensions of scale to scientific, mathematical, and technological applications.
* Describe scale as a form of ratio and apply to a life situation.
D. Apply scale as a way of relating concepts and ideas to one another by some measure.
* Apply dimensional analysis and scale as a ratio.
* Convert one scale to another.
D. Analyze scale as a way of relating concepts and ideas to one another by some measure.
* Compare and contrast various forms of dimensional analysis.
* Assess the use of several units of measurement to the same problem.
* Analyze and apply appropriate measurement scales when collecting data.
E. Recognize change in natural and physical systems.
* Recognize change as fundamental to science and technology concepts.
* Examine and explain change by using time and measurement.
* Describe relative motion.
* Describe the change to objects caused by heat, cold, light or chemicals.
E. Identify change as a variable in describing natural and physical systems.
* Describe fundamental science and technology concepts that could solve practical problems.
* Explain how ratio is used to describe change.
* Describe the effect of making a change in one part of a system on the system as a whole.
E. Describe patterns of change in nature, physical and man made systems.
* Describe how fundamental science and technology concepts are used to solve practical problems (e.g., momentum, Newton's laws of universal gravitation, tectonics, conservation of mass and energy, cell theory, theory of evolution, atomic theory, theory of relativity, Pasteur's germ theory, relativity, heliocentric theory, gas laws, feedback systems).
* Recognize that stable systems often involve underlying dynamic changes (e.g., a chemical reaction at equilibrium has molecules reforming continuously).
* Describe the effects of error in measurements.
* Describe changes to matter caused by heat, cold, light or chemicals using a rate function.
E. Evaluate change in nature, physical systems and man made systems.
* Evaluate fundamental science and technology concepts and their development over time (e.g., DNA, cellular respiration, unified field theory, energy measurement, automation, miniaturization, Copernican and Ptolemaic universe theories).
* Analyze how models, systems and technologies have changed over time (e.g., germ theory, theory of evolution, solar system, cause of fire).
* Explain how correlation of variables does not necessarily imply causation.
* Evaluate the patterns of change within a technology (e.g., changes in engineering in the automotive industry).
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