[22 PA. CODE CH. 4]
Academic Standards and Assessment for Civics and Government; Economics; Geography and History
[32 Pa.B. 905]
The State Board of Education proposes to amend Chapter 4 (relating to academic standards and assessment) by adding academic standards in civics and government, economics, geography and history, to read as set forth in Annex A, under authority of the Public School Code of 1949 (24 P. S. §§ 1-101--27-2702).
Proposed amendments to Chapter 4 will add academic standards in civics and government, economics, geography and history. The purpose of adding these requirements is to specify academic standards to be achieved by students enrolled in the public schools (including public charter schools) of this Commonwealth.
Requirements of the Proposed Rulemaking
Proposed amendments to Chapter 4 define the standards in civics and government, economics, geography and history to be achieved by students in the public schools. Standards for civics and government are organized in four areas: (1) principles and documents of government; (2) rights and responsibilities of citizenship; (3) how government works; and (4) how international relationships function. Standards for economics are organized in five areas: (1) economic systems; (2) markets and the functions of governments; (3) scarcity and choice; (4) economic interdependence; and (5) work and earnings. Standards for geography are organized in four areas: (1) basic geographic literacy; (2) physical characteristics of places and regions; (3) human characteristics of places and regions; and (4) the interactions between people and places. Standards for history are organized in four areas: (1) historical analysis and skill development; (2) Pennsylvania history; (3) United States history; and (4) world history. Specific standards describe what students should know and be able to do by the end of third, sixth, ninth and twelfth grade.
The proposed amendments to Chapter 4 affect the students and professional employees of the public schools of this Commonwealth (including intermediate units, area vocational-technical schools, public charter and alternative schools).
Cost and Paperwork Estimates
Costs to implement this proposed rulemaking may include curriculum development and the professional development of teachers. These costs vary by school district. Curriculum development is an ongoing activity for schools and is typically part of their normal budgeting. Costs associated with aligning curricula with these standards at the local level will be minimized by the following efforts: technical assistance in curriculum development provided by Department staff; detailed implementation materials developed by the Department, intermediate units and professional associations and provided to school districts; and the Standards Implementation Project which funds intermediate unit services throughout this Commonwealth supporting the implementation of these and other standards. Current year funds available to the Department to support curriculum alignment are $365,000.
Professional development of teachers is an ongoing activity for schools and is addressed in the normal budgeting of school districts. Specific programs designed to support the implementation of these standards will minimize any financial impact on school districts. These programs include professional development provided through the Standards Implementation Project and the Governor's Institutes for Teachers (currently provided in the Social Studies). Current year funds available to the Department to support professional development are $120,000. In addition, the act of November 23, 1999 (P. L. 529, No. 48) (Act 48) establishing a requirement for all educators to engage in continuing professional education, further requires the Department to provide 40 hours of professional development annually at no cost to teachers. It is expected that online, professional development activities will be developed in social studies.
These amendments to Chapter 4 will become effective upon final-form publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin.
The effectiveness of Chapter 4 will be reviewed by the Board every 4 years, in accordance with the Board's policy and practice respecting all regulations promulgated by the Board. Thus, no sunset date in necessary.
Under section 5(a) of the Regulatory Review Act (71 P. S. § 745.5(a)), on January 31, 2002, the Board submitted a copy of this proposed rulemaking to the Independent Regulatory Review Commission (IRRC) and to the Chairpersons of the House and Senate Committees on Education. In addition to submitting the proposed rulemaking, the Board has provided IRRC and the Committees with a copy of a detailed Regulatory Analysis Form prepared by the Board in compliance with Executive Order 1996-1, ''Regulatory Review and Promulgation.'' A copy of this material is available to the public upon request.
Under section 5(g) of the Regulatory Review Act, if the Committees have any objections to any portion of the proposed rulemaking, they will notify the Board within 20 days of the close of the public comment period. If IRRC has objections to any portion of the proposed rulemaking, it will notify the Board within 10 days of the close of the Committees' review period. The notification shall specify the regulatory review criteria which have not been met by that portion. The Regulatory Review Act specifies detailed procedures for review, prior to final publication of the regulations, by the Board, the General Assembly and the Governor of objections raised.
Public Comments and Contact Person
Interested persons are invited to submit written comments, suggestions or objections regarding this proposal to Peter H. Garland, Executive Director of the State Board of Education, 333 Market Street, Harrisburg, PA 17126-0333 within 30 days following publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin.
Persons with disabilities needing an alternative means of providing public comment may make arrangements by calling Dr. Peter Garland at (717) 787-3787 or TDD (717) 787-7367.
PETER H. GARLAND,
Fiscal Note: 6-275.(1) General Fund; (2) Implementing Year 2001-02 is $485,000; (3) 1st Succeeding Year 2002-03 is $485,000; 2nd Succeeding Year 2003-04 is $120,000; 3rd Succeeding Year 2004-05 is $120,000; 4th Succeeding Year 2005-06 is $120,000; 5th Succeeding Year 2006-07 is $120,000; (4) 2001-01 Program--$120,000; 1999-00 Program--$120,000; 1998-97 Program--$ -0-; (7) For teacher professional development associated with new academic standards, and the like. (8) recommends adoptions.
TITLE 22. EDUCATION
PART I. STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
CHAPTER 4. ACADEMIC STANDARDS AND ASSESSMENT
Academic Standards for Civics and Government
and Economics and Geography and History
Proposed Academic Standards for
Civics and Government
XIII. TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS
Principles and Documents of Government 5.1. What Government Is Rule of Law Principles and Ideals Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship 5.2. Rights of Citizenship Responsibilities of Citizenship Civic Participation How Government Works 5.3. Separation of Powers Elections Forms of Government How International Relationships Function 5.4. Diplomacy International Organizations Political Units Glossary XV.
This document includes Proposed Academic Standards for Civics and Government that describe what students should know and be able to do in four areas:
* 5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
* 5.2. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship
* 5.3. How Government Works
* 5.4. How International Relationships Function
The Proposed Civics and Government Academic Standards describe what students should know and be able to do at four grade levels (third, sixth, ninth and twelfth). Throughout the standard statements, concepts found in lower grades must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels.
The Pennsylvania Constitution of 1790 was the basis for the Free Public School Act of 1834 that is the underpinning of today's system of schools operating throughout the Commonwealth. These schools were created to educate children to be useful citizens, loyal to the principles upon which our Republic was founded, and aware of their duties as citizens to maintain those ideals.
The Proposed Academic Standards for Civics and Government are based on the Public School Code of 1949 which directs ''. . . teaching and presentation of the principles and ideals of the American republican representative form of government as portrayed and experienced by the acts and policies of the framers of the Declaration of Independence and framers of the Constitution of the United States and Bill of Rights. . .''. The intent of the Code is that such instruction ''shall have for its purpose also instilling into every boy and girl who comes out of public, private and parochial schools their solemn duty and obligation to exercise intelligently their voting privilege and to understand the advantages of the American republican form of government as compared with various other forms of governments.''
A glossary is included to assist the reader in clarifying terminology contained in the standards.
5.1. Principles and Documents of Government 5.1.3. GRADE 3 5.1.6. GRADE 6 5.1.9. GRADE 9 5.1.12. GRADE 12 Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . . A. Describe what government is. A. Explain the purpose of government. A. Identify and explain the major arguments advanced for the necessity of government. A. Evaluate the major arguments advanced for the necessity of government. B. Explain the purposes of rules and laws and why they are important in the classroom, school, community, state and nation. B. Explain the importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights and the common good in the community, state, nation and world. B. Describe historical examples of the importance of the rule of law.
B. Analyze the sources, purposes and functions of law. C. Define the principles and ideals shaping government.
* Diversity of people and ideas
* Common good
* Rule of law
C. Describe the principles and ideals shaping government.
* Majority rule/Minority rights
* Popular sovereignty
* Checks and balances
* Separation of powers
C. Analyze the principles and ideals that shape government.
* Constitutional govern ment
* Liberal democracy
* Classical republican ism
C. Evaluate the importance of the principles and ideals of civic life. D. Identify the document which created Pennsylvania. D. Explain the basic principles and ideals within documents of Pennsylvania government.
* Charter of 1681
* Charter of Privileges
* Pennsylvania Consti tution
* Pennsylvania Declara tion of Rights
D. Interpret significant changes in the basic documents shaping the government of Pennsylvania.
* The Great Law of 1682
* Constitution of 1776
* Constitution of 1790
* Constitution of 1838
* Constitution of 1874
* Constitution of 1968
D. Analyze the principles and ideals that shape the government of Pennsylvania and apply them to the government.
* The Charter of 1681
* Charter of Privileges
* PA Constitution, its revisions and Amend ments
E. Identify documents of United States government.
* Declaration of Indepen dence
* Constitution of the United States
* Bill of Rights
E. Explain the basic principles and ideals within documents of United States government. E. Analyze the basic documents shaping the government of the United States.
* Magna Carta
* English Bill of Rights
* Mayflower Compact
* Articles of Confedera tion
* Declaration of Inde pendence
* Federalist papers
* Anti-federalist writings
* United States Consti tution
E. Evaluate the principles and ideals that shape the United States and compare them to documents of government. F. Explain the meaning of a preamble.
* Constitution of the United States
* Pennsylvania Constitution
F. Explain the meaning of the Preamble to the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and compare it to the Preamble of the Constitution of the United States. F. Contrast the individual rights created by the Pennsylvania Constitution and those created by the Constitution of the United States. F. Analyze and assess the rights of the people as listed in the Pennsylvania Constitution and the Constitution of the United States. G. Describe the purpose of the United States Flag, The Pledge of Allegiance and The National Anthem. G. Describe the proper use, display and respect for the United States Flag and explain the significance of patriotic activities.
* Reciting The Pledge of Alliance
* Standing for The Na tional Anthem
G. Describe the procedures for proper uses, display and respect for the United States Flag as per the National Flag Code. G. Analyze and interpret the role of the United States Flag in civil disobedience and in patriotic activities. H. Identify framers of documents of governments.
* United States
H. Describe the roles played by the framers of the basic documents of governments of Pennsylvania and the United States. H. Explain and interpret the roles of framers of basic documents of government from a national and Pennsylvania perspective. H. Analyze the competing positions held by the framers of the basic documents of government of Pennsylvania and United States. I. Explain why government is necessary in the classroom, school, community, state and nation and the basic purposes of government in Pennsylvania and the United States. I. Describe and compare the making of rules by direct democracy and by representative democracy. I. Explain the essential characteristics of limited and unlimited governments and explain the advantages and disadvantages of systems of government.
I. Analyze historical examples of the importance of the rule of law explaining the sources, purposes and functions of law. J. Explain the importance of respect for the property and the opinions of others. J. Describe how the government protects individual rights and promotes the common good. J. Explain how law protects individual rights and the common good. J. Analyze how the law promotes the common good and protects individual rights. K. Identify symbols and political holidays.
* Pennsylvania (e.g., Charter Day, Liberty Bell, Keystone State)
* United States (e.g., Presidents' Day, Statue of Liberty, White House)
K. Describe the purpose of symbols and holidays. K. Explain why symbols and holidays were created and the ideals they commemorate. K. Analyze the roles of symbols and holidays in society. L. Identify ways courts resolve conflicts involving principles and ideals of government. L. Explain the role of courts in resolving conflicts involving the principles and ideals of government.
L. Interpret Pennsylvania and United States court decisions that have impacted the principles and ideals of government. L. Analyze Pennsylvania and United States court decisions that have affected principles and ideals of government in civic life.
* Civil rights
* Judicial review
* Federal supremacy
M. Identify portions of famous speeches and writings that reflect the basic principles and ideals of government (e.g., ''I have a dream,'' Reverend Martin Luther King; ''One small step for mankind,'' Neil Armstrong). M. Explain the basic principles and ideals found in famous speeches and writings (e.g., ''Governments, like clocks, go from the motion people give them,'' William Penn; ''A date that will live in infamy,'' Franklin D. Roosevelt). M. Interpret the impact of famous speeches and writings on civic life (e.g., The Gospel of Wealth, Declaration of Sentiments). M. Evaluate and analyze the importance of significant political speeches and writings in civic life (e.g., Diary of Anne Frank, Silent Spring). Basic concepts found in lower grades for standard statements and their descriptors must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels.
5.2. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship 5.2.3. GRADE 3 5.2.6. GRADE 6 5.2.9. GRADE 9 5.2.12. GRADE 12 Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . . A. Identify examples of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
* Personal rights
* Political rights
* Economic rights
* Personal responsibili-
* Civic responsibilities
A. Compare rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
* Political rights
* Economic rights
* Personal responsibilities of the individual and to society
* Civic responsibilities of the individual and to society
* Traits of character of individuals and to con stitutional democracy
A. Contrast the essential rights and responsibilities of citizens in systems of government.
A. Evaluate an individual's civic rights, responsibilities and duties in various governments. B. Identify personal rights and responsibilities. B. Explain the relationship between rights and responsibilities. B. Analyze citizens' rights and responsibilities in local, state and national government. B. Evaluate citizen's participation in government and civic life. C. Identify sources of conflict and disagreement and different ways conflicts can be resolved. C. Explain ways citizens resolve conflicts in society and government. C. Analyze skills used to resolve conflicts in society and government. C. Interpret the causes of conflict in society and analyze techniques to resolve those conflicts. D. Identify the importance of political leadership and public service in the school, community, state and nation. D. Describe the importance of political leadership and public service. D. Analyze political leadership and public service in a constitutional democracy. D. Evaluate political leadership and public service in a constitutional democracy. E. Describe ways citizens can influence the decisions and actions of government. E. Identify examples of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. E. Explain the importance of political process to competent and responsible participation in civic life. E. Analyze how participation in civic and political life leads to the attainment of individual and public goals. F. Explain the benefits of following rules and laws and the consequences of violating them. F. Describe the impact of the consequences of violating rules and laws in a civil society. F. Analyze the consequences of violating laws of Pennsylvania compared to those of the United States. F. Evaluate how individual rights may conflict with or support the common good. G. Identify ways to participate in government and civic life. G. Explain the importance of participating in government and civic life. G. Analyze political and civic participation in government and society. G. Evaluate what makes a competent and responsible citizen. Basic concepts found in lower grades for standard statements and their descriptors must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels.
5.3. How Government Works 5.3.3. GRADE 3 5.3.6. GRADE 6 5.3.9. GRADE 9 5.3.12. GRADE 12 Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . . A. Identify the elected representative bodies responsible for making local, Pennsylvania and United States laws. A. Compare the structure, organization and operation of local, state and national governments. A. Explain the structure, organization and operation of the local, state and national governments including domestic and national policy-making. A. Analyze and evaluate the structure, organization and operation of the local, state and national governments including domestic and national policy-making. B. Identify the role of the three branches of government.
B. Describe the responsibilities and powers of the three branches of government. B. Compare the responsibilities and powers of the three branches within the national government. B. Analyze the responsibilities and powers of the national government. C. Identify reasons for rules and laws in the school and community. C. Explain how government actions affect citizens' daily lives. C. Explain how a bill becomes a law on a federal, state, and local level. C. Evaluate the process of how a bill becomes the law on a federal, state, and local levels. D. Identify services performed by the local, state and national governments. D. Describe how local, state and national governments implement their services. D. Explain how independent government agencies create, amend and enforce regulatory policies.
* Local (e.g., Zoning Board)
* State (e.g., Pennsylva nia Utilities Commis sion)
* National (e.g., Federal Communications Com mission)
D. Evaluate how independent government agencies create, amend and enforce regulations. E. Identify positions of authority at school and in local, state and national governments. E. Identify major leaders of local, state and national governments, their primary duties and their political party affiliation. E. Explain how citizens participate in choosing their leaders through political parties, campaigns and elections. E. Evaluate the roles of political parties in election campaigns. F. Explain what an election is. F. Describe the voting process.
* United States
F. Explain the election process.
* Voter registration
* Primary Elections
* National Conventions
* General Elections
* Electoral College
F. Evaluate the elements of the election process. G. Explain why being treated fairly is important. G. Describe how the government protects individual rights.
* Presumption of Inno cence
* Right to Counsel
* Trial by Jury
* Bill of Rights
G. Explain how the government protects individual rights.
* Equal protection
* Habeas Corpus * Right Against Self Incrimination * Double Jeopardy * Right of Appeal
* Due Process
G. Evaluate how the government protects or curtails individual rights and analyze the impact of supporting or opposing those rights. H. Identify individual interests and explain ways to influence others. H. Identify individual interests and how they impact government. H. Analyze how interest groups provide opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process. H. Evaluate the impact of interest groups on the political process. I. Explain why taxes are necessary and identify who pays them. I. Describe why and how government raises money to pay for its operations and services. I. Analyze how and why government raises money to pay for its operation and services. I. Evaluate how and why government raises money to pay for its operations and services. J. Identify the role of the media in society. J. Describe the influence of media in reporting issues. J. Analyze the importance of freedom of the press. J. Evaluate the role of media in political life in the United States and explain the role of the media in setting the public agenda. K. Identify different ways people govern themselves. K. Describe forms of government.
K. Identify and explain systems of government.
K. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of various systems of government.
Basic concepts found in lower grades for standard statements and their descriptors must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels.
5.4. How International Relationships Function 5.4.3. GRADE 3 5.4.6. GRADE 6 5.4.9. GRADE 9 5.4.12. GRADE 12 Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . . A. Identify how customs and traditions influence governments. A. Explain the concept of nation-states. A. Explain how the United States is affected by policies of nation-states, governmental and non-governmental organizations. A. Analyze the impact of international economic, technological and cultural developments on the government of the United States. B. Recognize that the world is divided into various political units. B. Describe how nation-states coexist in the world community. B. Explain the role of the United States in world affairs. B. Analyze the United States' interaction with other nations and governmental groups in world events. C. Identify ways in which countries interact with the United States. C. Describe the governments of the countries bordering the United States and their relationships with the United States. C. Explain the effects United States political ideas have had on other nations. C. Compare how past and present United States' policy interests have changed over time and analyze the impact on future international relationships. D. Identify treaties and other agreements between or among nations. D. Describe the processes that resulted in a treaty or agreement between the United States and another nation state. D. Contrast how the three branches of federal government function in foreign policy. D. Explain how foreign policy is developed and implemented. E. Identify how nations work together to solve problems. E. Explain how nations work together on common environmental problems, natural disasters and trade. E. Explain the development and the role of the United Nations and other international organizations, both governmental and non-governmental. E. Compare the purposes and functions of international organizations.
* Governmental (e.g., NATO, World Court, OAS)
* Non-governmental (e.g., International Red Cross, Amnesty International, World Council of Churches)
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