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Pennsylvania Code



101.1.    Definitions.
101.2.    Application of standards.
101.3.    Standards for grades of vealers.


   The provisions of this Chapter 101 issued under act of April 4, 1929 (P. L. 144) (3 P. S. § §  21—33); and section 1704 of The Administrative Code of 1929 (71 P. S. §  444), unless otherwise noted.


   The provisions of this Chapter 101 adopted March 15, 1961, unless otherwise noted.

§ 101.1. Definitions.

 The following words and terms, when used in this chapter, have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

   Conformation—The general body portions of a bovine animal and the ratio of meat to bone. Conformation is determined primarily by the inherent muscular and skeletal system, but is also influenced by degree of fatness.

   Finish—The fatness of a bovine animal. The quality, quantity and distribution of finish are closely associated with the palatability and quality of the meat.

   Quality—The refinement of hair, hide and bone to the smoothness and symmetry of the body of a slaughter calf or vealer. Also related to the carcass yield and proportion of meat to bone.

   Slaughter calf—Young bovine animal usually between 3 and 8 months of age which is subsisted partially or entirely on feeds other than milk for a substantial period of time. The middle is heavier than that of a vealer and the calf has the overall physical characteristics associated with maturity beyond the vealer stage.

   Vealer—Young bovine animal typically less than 3 months of age which subsisted largely on milk and has the characteristic trimness of the middle associated with limited paunch development.

§ 101.2. Application of standards.

 (a)  Vealers shall be graded largely on a composite evaluation of conformation, finish, quality and the total inherent physical characteristics of the animal.

 (b)  The grade descriptions of vealers as provided in §  101.3 (relating to standards for grades of vealers) applies to vealers of average age or maturity. In order to qualify for a specific grade, more mature animals shall carry somewhat more finish than specified and very young animals may carry somewhat less finish than specified.

 (c)  The description of each grade of vealers shall represent the lower limits of the grade. There may be numerous combinations of grade factors which meet minimum requirements for a particular grade.

 (d)  Use of the standards for grades of vealers shall be voluntary.

§ 101.3. Standards for grades of vealers.

 The following minimum standards for grades of vealers are the same as the official United States Department of Agriculture standards, 7 CFR 53.123 (relating to specification for official United States standards for grades of vealers) and apply in this Commonwealth:

   (1)  Prime. Superior in conformation, quality and finish. In conformation, Prime vealers tend to be low-set, compact, short of neck and body and relatively thick-fleshed. They are wide over the back, loin and rump. Shoulders and hips are moderately neat and smoothly laid in. The twist is deep and full, and the rounds are thick and moderately plump. There is a slight fullness or plumpness evident over the crops, loin and rump, which contributes to a rather well-rounded appearance. Prime vealers have a thin fat covering over the crops, back, loin, rump and upper ribs. The brisket, rear flanks and cod or udder show distinct evidence of fullness. Prime vealers exhibit evidences of high quality. The bones tend to be proportionately small, joints smooth, the hide moderately thin and pliable, and the body very trim, smooth and symmetrical.

   (2)  Choice. Tend to be moderately low-set, short-necked and compact. They are slightly thick-fleshed and moderately wide over the back and loin. Shoulders and hips are usually moderately neat and smoothly laid in, with only a slight tendency toward prominence. The loin, rump and rounds may appear almost flat, with little evidence of fullness. Choice vealers have a very thin fat covering over the back, loin and upper ribs. The brisket, rear flanks and cod or udder may show a very slight fullness. Choice vealers usually present a moderately refined appearance.

   (3)  Good. Tend to be slightly compact and slightly wide of back and loin. The neck may be slightly long and thin. Good grade vealers tend to be slightly thin-fleshed, and the loin, rump and rounds are flat and may present a very slight sunken or hollowed-out appearance. The shoulders and hips are slightly prominent. The fat covering is very limited and is discernible only over portions of the back and loin. The brisket, rear flanks and cod or udder may have small fat deposits but have no apparent fullness. Good grade vealers are usually moderately smooth and slightly refined in appearance.

   (4)  Standard. Tend to be rangy, upstanding, long and thin of neck, narrow over the back, loin and rump, and shallow in the twist. They are thin-fleshed, and there is a distinctly sunken or hollowed-out appearance over the back, loin and rounds. Hips and shoulders appear moderately prominent. There is an extremely thin fat covering over portions of the back and loin that is difficult to detect in the live animal. The vealers may show the heavy bones, thick hide, prominent hips and shoulders associated with coarseness, or they may show the small bones, tight hide and angularity denoting over-refinement.

   (5)  Utility. May tend to be very rangy, angular and long and thin of neck. They are very thinly fleshed, narrow over the back, loin and rump, and shallow in the twist. Hips and shoulders are very prominent, and the crops, back, loin, rump and rounds present a very sunken or hollowed-out appearance. Utility vealers show no visible evidence of fat covering. Utility vealers tend to be of low quality. The bones and joints are usually proportionately large and the hide either thick or tight and inelastic.

   (6)  Cull. Typically appears to be extremely rangy, angular, long and thin-necked, narrow and shallow bodied. Shoulders and hips are extremely prominent, and the crops, back, loin, rump and rounds present an extremely sunken or hollowed-out appearance. The general appearance denotes low quality. The relative proportion of meat to bone is very low, joints appear large and coarse, and the body is very unsymmetrical.

Cross References

   This section cited in 7 Pa. Code §  101.2 (relating to applications of standards).

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