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Pennsylvania Code




35.51.    Definitions.
35.52.    Scope.
35.53.    Applicability of fire protection provisions.
35.54.    Age requirement.
35.55.    Eating restrictions.
35.56.    Penalty.


35.61.    Exceptions to booth requirements.
35.62.    Respiratory protectors.
35.63.    Brushing excess enamel.
35.64.    Protection of workmen.
35.65.    Eye protection.


35.71.    Size.
35.72.    Construction.
35.73.    Location.
35.74.    Metal curtains
35.75.    Sprinklers.
35.76.    Special types of booths.


35.81.    General requirements.
35.82.    Exhaust ducts.
35.83.    Electric motors.
35.84.    Fans.


35.91.    Cleaning of booths, room booths, exhaust equipment, and spraying equipment—general.
35.92.    Booths and room booths.
35.93.    Spray guns.
35.94.    Fans and ducts.


35.101.    Storage of containers.
35.102.    Use of containers.


35.111.    General requirements.
35.112.    Wiring.
35.113.    Switches, fuses and circuit breakers.
35.114.    Grounding for static.


35.121.    Extinguishers.
35.122.    Heaters.
35.123.    Open fire or sparks.


35.131.    Health protection.
35.132.    Physical examinations.
35.133.    Fire protection.


   The provisions of this Subchapter B issued under section 1 of the act of June 2, 1913 (P. L. 396, No. 267) (71 P. S. §  1441); and the act of May 18, 1937 (P. L. 654, No. 174) (43 P. S. § §  25-1—25-15), unless otherwise noted.


   The provisions of this Subchapter B adopted August 16, 1929; amended through August 1, 1968, unless otherwise noted.


§ 35.51. Definitions.

 The following words and terms, when used in this subchapter, have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

   Booth—A compartment within a room or section of an establishment, which shall be equipped for the coating of objects by the spray method. This term includes cabinet booths and tunnel booths.

   Harmful materials—aterials used in spray coating except those that have been definitely proved to the Department not to be harmful under the particular conditions of use.

   Respiratory protector—A device approved by the Board for giving an individual adequate protection against the inhalation of harmful materials.

   Room booth—A room which is built or set apart for spray coating and equipment with exhaust ventilation, and which may be closed off entirely from the rest of the building.

   Spray coating—The application of paints, stains, varnishes, lacquers, enamels, metals or similar materials by the spray method.

   Spray method—The application of atomized paints, stains, varnishes, lacquers, enamels, metals or similar materials delivered through or by a spray gun or similar device by compressed air or other means.

   Structure—Buildings, walls, bridges, ships (when not under maritime jurisdiction) or other fabricated units.

§ 35.52. Scope.

 (a)  This subchapter sets forth rules to safeguard the lives, limbs and health of workers engaged in spray coating operations.

 (b)  Both employer and employe are responsible for complying with this subchapter.

 (c)  The Department may require additional protections not specified in this subchapter if it or its authorized representative believes sufficient hazard exists to warrant the action.

§ 35.53. Applicability of fire protection provisions.

 Nothing in this subchapter referring solely to fire protection shall be construed as applying to the spraying of materials in which water or other noncombustible liquid is used as the vehicle.

§ 35.54. Age requirement.

 A person under 17 years of age or under may not be required or permitted to spray coat objects with substances containing lead, benzol or ground siliceous materials.

§ 35.55. Eating restrictions.

 A person may not eat or bring food inside a room booth nor eat their meals while spraying is being done within a radius of 25 feet of the spraying. The distance of 25 feet may be reduced to 15 feet if the exhaust system has been kept in operation for at least 5 minutes after spraying has been stopped.

§ 35.56. Penalty.

 A person who violates this subchapter or any regulations of the Department or who interferes with the Department or its authorized representative in the enforcement of the provisions or regulations shall be penalized under section 15 of act of May 18, 1937 (P. L. 654, No. 174) (43 P. S. §  25-15).


§ 35.61. Exceptions to booth requirements.

 (a)  All spray coating with harmful materials shall be done in booths or room booths, except under the following conditions, in which cases the sprayer shall be provided with and shall use an approved respiratory protector:

   (1)  The spray coating of interiors or exteriors of buildings or other structures.

   (2)  The spray coating of objects in the open air or in sheds open on at least two opposite sides.

   (3)  The spray coating of large castings, forgings, structural members, parts of machinery or other large objects, if not readily subjected to booth treatment.

   (4)  The spray coating of exceptionally large objects, such as railroad cars, trolley cars, automobiles or trucks.

   (5)  The retouching of automobile parts after repairs or similar minor or intermittent use.

   (6)  Other conditions when permission is granted by the Board.

 (b)  Unless natural or artificial ventilation is provided, the exceptions enumerated in subsection (a) are not applicable to indoor spraying when more than one pint of material to each 1,000 cubic feet of air space is sprayed per hour.

 (c)  Unless artificial ventilation equivalent to five air changes an hour is maintained, the exceptions enumerated in subsection (a) are applicable to the interior coating of vaults, cellars, shafts, tanks or similar confined and unventilated spaces.

Cross References

   This section cited in 34 Pa. Code §  35.62 (relating to respiratory protectors).

§ 35.62. Respiratory protectors.

 (a)  Use. When a sprayer working at a booth or in a room booth is exposed to deposits of sprayed material he shall be provided with, and shall wear, an approved respiratory protector.

 (b)  Maintenance. Respiratory protectors shall be maintained in a sanitary condition. The filtering and the absorbent or absorbent materials shall be changed as often as necessary to provide the wearer with adequate protection.

 (c)  Type of protector. Under approved conditions for use of respiratory protectors as specified in §  35.61 (relating to exceptions to booth requirements), various types of respiratory protectors shall be used pursuant to the following requirements:

   (1)  When health hazardous substances used in spray coating are in the particulate form, the respiratory protectors used shall be of the filter type.

   (2)  When health hazardous substances are in the form of gas or vapor the respiratory protector shall contain gas or vapor absorbents or adsorbents such as activated charcoal.

   (3)  When health hazardous substances are in the form of both particulate matter and gases or vapors, the respiratory protector shall contain both a mechanical filter and an absorbent or adsorbent.

   (4)  A positive pressure air respirator may be substituted for any of the respiratory protectors specified in paragraphs (1)—(3).

§ 35.63. Brushing excess enamel.

 Where vitreous enamel or other siliceous materials are being sprayed, the brushing off of excess enamel shall be carried on at such a point that the dust produced by the operation does not get into the fresh air supply of the sprayer. This should be done preferably in connection with an exhaust ventilating duct.

§ 35.64. Protection of workmen.

 All workmen exposed to the material being sprayed or vapors of such material shall be protected in a manner equal to that afforded the sprayers. Where it is impracticable for such workmen to wear respiratory protectors, that portion of the room used for spraying shall be separated by fire-resistive walls from the remainder of the room where the other workmen are employed, except that the walls need not be of fire-resistive material when so determined by the Board.

§ 35.65. Eye protection.

 Where it is necessary to protect workers against eye hazards, approved eye protection shall be provided.


§ 35.71. Size.

 Booths shall be large enough to contain all objects to be coated in such booths, with the following exceptions:

   (1)  Objects that are too large for any one booth may be coated by placing first one end in the booth and then the other end, the end to be sprayed being in the booth.

   (2)  If the material being used for spraying is of such nature as to make impracticable the foregoing method, it is permissible to extend one side of the booth, and the roof a distance equal to the smallest dimension of the cross section of the booth. Material used for the extension of the side and the roof shall be of the same general character as that used for the construction of the original booth.

§ 35.72. Construction.

 (a)  New structures. Booths and room booths shall be constructed of noncombustible material. If the booths contain windows or glass panels, wire glass shall be used if the face area of the booth is more than 4 square feet. Unless the floor outside the booth is constructed of noncombustible materials, such floor shall be protected with nonsparking metal for a distance of 2 feet from the face of the booth, except in the case of small booths having bottoms 2 feet or more above the building floor. Floors in front of booths shall be so constructed and maintained that they are not a slipping hazard.

 (b)  Wooden structures. All existing wooden booths, with the exception of those having a working face area of 4 square feet or less, shall be replaced by booths constructed in accordance with subsection (a); unless, in the judgment of the Department, the hazard warrants the immediate discontinuance of such booths, or when they have been satisfactorily lined with noncombustible material.

§ 35.73. Location.

 (a)  Booths or room booths shall not be located in basements or below the grade floor of a building, except under the following conditions:

   (1)  Where the basement has at least two means of egress (elevators not included).

   (2)  Where the booths or room booths are located a sufficient distance from the means of egress so that access to at least one of them shall not be cut off in case of fire.

   (3)  Where there is either one exhaust duct at the floor level of the booth or room booth equipped with an exhaust fan, or the booths are equipped with baffles or distributing plates so as to insure comparatively uniform exhaust from all points of operation in the booth.

 (b)  Booths and room booths shall be located and operated so as to insure an adequate amount of pure clean air to replace the air removed by the exhaust system.

§ 35.74. Metal curtains.

 Booths three feet or more in width (measured along the floor or bottom of face) shall be equipped along the outer and upper edge of the face with a fixed metal curtain not less than 2 1/2 inches nor more than five inches in depth.

§ 35.75. Sprinklers.

 (a)  Quantity required. Booths 3 feet or more in width (measured along the floor or bottom of face), or having a face area of more than 16 square feet, shall be equipped with one or more approved automatic sprinklers. At least one automatic sprinkler shall be installed in booths between 3 feet and 8 feet in width, and one automatic sprinkler for each additional width of 8 feet or fraction thereof.

 (b)  Location in booths. Sprinklers shall be so located at the top of the booth that they do not readily become coated with paint or other materials, and in such position that they afford protection to some of the area outside and immediately adjacent to the face of the booth. No sprinklers shall be located less than 4 inches from the edge or the top of any booth. Each room booth shall be equipped with one approved automatic sprinkler for each 160 square foot unit of floor area or fraction thereof.

 (c)  Maintenance. The accumulated deposits of sprayed materials shall be cleaned from the sprinkler heads at frequent intervals with sufficient care to avoid injury to the sprinkler head.

§ 35.76. Special types of booths.

 Special designs of installations of spray booths not contemplated by this subchapter shall be of an approved type. All specifications for construction, electrical equipment, lighting and fireproofing shall be in accordance with this Subchapter insofar as applicable. In no case shall the exhaust performances be less than those required by this subchapter.


§ 35.81. General requirements.

 (a)  Booths. Booths shall be equipped with exhaust systems which will normally protect the operators from deposits or inhalation of the material discharged from the spray gun.

 (b)  Room booths. When objects are sprayed in room booths the exhaust system shall be kept in operation constantly while spraying is being carried on, and shall effect not less than 20 changes of air per hour. To maintain adequate ventilation, cross currents of air shall be avoided. While spraying is being carried on, currents of air shall not be permitted from windows or from other sources that will interfere with the required velocity of the exhaust system.

§ 35.82. Exhaust ducts.

 (a)  Exhaust ducts shall be as short as possible. They shall terminate at a point where the discharge will least endanger health or property, and at such height above the sidewalks or passageways as to make it unlikely that lighted matches or other open flames might be dropped into the ducts or come in dangerous proximity to the discharge from the duct opening. All outlets shall be protected if located where fire or sparks might enter the exhaust ducts and set fire to the spraying or other equipment.

 (b)  Exhaust ducts shall be constructed so as to be easily inspected and cleaned.

 (c)  Ducts shall be constructed of noncombustible material.

§ 35.83. Electric motors.

 Electric motors shall be installed outside of ventilating ducts. This provision shall not apply to electric motors operating fans in wall or window openings of spray rooms, if the motors are of the two or three phase alternating current type and are shielded to prevent residue or flyings from accumulating on the motor.

§ 35.84. Fans.

 (a)  Fans shall be constructed of noncombustible material. Fan blades shall be constructed of material which does not create sparks when struck by other objects.

 (b)  It is recommended that fans be capable of moving the air at all times past the working face of the booth toward the fan at a speed of not less than 100 lineal feet per minute for conventional spray and 60 feet per minute for electrostatic spray, as measured by a vane anemometer.


   The provisions of this §  35.84 amended August 31, 1979, effective September 1, 1979, 9 Pa.B. 2935. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (8658).


§ 35.91. Cleaning of booths, room booths, exhaust equipment, andspraying equipment—general.

 (a)  The use of flammable substances as cleaning agents shall be restricted to kerosene or similar high flash point oils.

 (b)  Implements used for cleaning shall be composed of nonsparking material.

§ 35.92. Booths and room booths.

 (a)  Booths and room booths used for spray coating shall be kept clean and free from accumulations of sprayed materials.

 (b)  The practice of covering the booth floor with sawdust, shavings or similar loose litter for the purpose of catching the drippings is prohibited.

 (c)  Combustible linings of booths and room booths which have been re moved in the course of cleaning, and rags, waste or other material used for wiping or cleaning, shall not be permitted to remain in any booth or room booth, but shall be deposited in metal containers with gravity closing covers provided for that purpose. This material shall be disposed of by burning at some safe place immediately upon completion of cleaning operations.

 (d)  The alternate spraying of pyroxylin lacquers and paints or varnishes in the same booth is prohibited unless special permission is granted by the Board or the booth has been thoroughly cleaned before the spraying of either type of material.

§ 35.93. Spray guns.

 Before spray guns are disassembled for cleaning, the compressed air supply to them shall be shut off. Under no circumstances shall the gun be pointed toward the face of the operator or other person unless the air is shut off.

§ 35.94. Fans and ducts.

 (a)  Where fans are equipped with baffles that produce four or more 180 degree turns in the direction of the exhaust air, and where spraying is continuous, fans and exhaust ducts shall be examined at least weekly. They shall be kept clean and free from the accumulation of sprayed materials.

 (b)  Where there are no baffles nor distributing plates in front of fans, all fans and exhaust ducts shall be examined daily, and shall be kept clean and free from accumulation of sprayed materials.

 (c)  No employe shall enter exhaust ducts for the purpose of examining, cleaning, or repairing until the ducts are free from flammable vapors.

 (d)  Nothing in this Subchapter shall be construed to require the frequent cleaning of fans in installations using the induced draft principle.


§ 35.101. Storage of containers.

 (a)  Storage supplies of flammable materials used for spraying, when kept in rooms in which spray operations are being carried on, shall be kept in tightly closed containers. Each liquid supply tank shall be provided with a metal cover which shall be kept in place at all times except when removed for filling or cleaning.

 (b)  The amount of flammable spraying materials kept in rooms in which spray operations are being carried on shall not exceed an amount necessary for one workday, unless material is sprayed directly from original drum containers.

 (c)  Empty drums or other containers shall be promptly removed from all booths and room booths and areas immediately adjacent to them.

§ 35.102. Use of containers.

 (a)  Support. Tanks or other containers used in connection with spraying operations shall be constructed, located and operated so as to minimize the possibility of their being upset and the contents spilled. Gravity tanks shall be supported by noncombustible materials. Gravity tanks supported by wire cables or chains shall not exceed 10 gallons in capacity.

 (b)  Limitations on pressure. If materials are sprayed from original drum containers, pressure in excess of 10 pounds per square inch shall not be used to force the materials from their containers.


§ 35.111. General requirements.

 All electrical equipment shall conform to the provisions of Chapter 39, Subchapter B (relating to electric safety).

§ 35.112. Wiring.

 Except for the purpose of cleaning or making repairs or other adjustments, all electrical wiring in booths or room booths shall be of a permanent character. Portable lamps shall be incased in vapor-proof globes with suitable mechanical guards. Permanent electrical wiring in booths or room booths shall be installed in rigid or flexible metal conduits or raceways. All wiring within 30 feet of the face of the booth, in rooms in which booths are located, shall be installed in rigid or flexible metal conduits or raceways.

§ 35.113. Switches, fuses and circuit breakers.

 Switches, fuses or circuit breakers shall be located outside booths and room booths.

§ 35.114. Grounding for static.

 Metal parts of any apparatus used in exhaust systems for the removal of flammable vapors, such as fans, ducts and similar equipment, as well as shafting used in connection with the equipment, shall be electrically grounded in such manner as to permit frequent grounding tests.


§ 35.121. Extinguishers.

 Soda and acid, foam type, liquid carbon dioxide or other acceptable types of fire extinguishers, as listed by the Underwiters Laboratories, Inc., shall be provided at all booths or room booths, regardless of whether they are equipped with sprinkler systems.

§ 35.122. Heaters.

 Both steam and electric heaters are acceptable for heating spraying materials. Electric heaters shall be so designed that the heating coils are fully protected from contact with flammable fumes, gases or vapors, and that the temperature is always below the flash point of the material being sprayed.

§ 35.123. Open fire or sparks.

 (a)  Fired prsssure vessels, internal combustion engines, electric motors except those of the nonsparking or wholly enclosed type, or those operating storage battery trucks, shall not be operated within 25 feet of any booth, room booth, or other space in active use for spraying operations, except under the following conditions:

   (1)  When nonflammable materials are used.

   (2)  When the apparatus is separated from the spraying area by a wall or partition. All doors and windows in such walls or partitions shall be kept closed at all times except for the passage of persons or vehicles.

 (b)  Vehicles to be spray coated shall have all electric batteries removed after being placed in the booth, room booth or other location and before spray is begun.


§ 35.131. Health protection.

 (a)  Sprayers. The following recommendations apply to all workers engaged in spray painting operations:

   (1)  Sprayers of vitreous enamel or other siliceous materials, who are not wearing air helmets or respirators, should be supplied with a mild nonirritating solution for use as a nasal douche or wash at the end of their working periods.

   (2)  Spray operators in booths and room booths should exercise care not to come between the exhaust outlet and any spray created.

   (3)  Operators spraying in any location should not spray toward each other where there is any possibility of spray or spray vapors striking the head or face of another operator.

   (4)  Operators spraying inside of room booths, in the open air, or in other locations not provided with exhaust equipment should wear caps or other head coverings to protect the hair. This is not necessary in the case of operators stationed outside of a booth who are spraying into a booth.

   (5)  Where spraying is done in room booths, in open shops, or in the open, the employer should provide nondrying oil or grease for all workers, for the purpose of anointing exposed parts of the body during spraying operations.

   (6)  It is advisable not to have one sprayer working continuously on the interiors of cabinets, chests or other hollow objects, as it is difficult to prevent completely the rebound of spray into the face of the worker when doing work of this nature.

   (7)  In addition to the washing or bathing facilities required by Chapter 41 (relating to sanitation) adequate supplies of soap and nail brushes should be provided for spray operators and their helpers.

 (b)  Booth spraying. The following recommendations apply to booth spraying:

   (1)  Where the objects being sprayed present large, flat, upright surfaces acting as baffles, there should be at least 2 feet clear space between the sides of the object and the sides of the booth.

   (2)  Where cabinets, chests or other hollow objects are being coated on the interior, it is particularly important to have the entire object well within the booth and to have a space of at least 2 feet clear between the sides of the object and the sides of the booth.

   (3)  Where the objects to be sprayed are small they should be sprayed in a small booth.

   (4)  Where possible, objects to be spray coated should be placed in the booth so that the prevailing direction of the spray is downward from the gun nozzle toward the side of the booth in which the exhaust opening is located.

   (5)  Air pressure on the gun should be kept as low as possible, consistent with good finish. In booth spraying the distance between the nozzle and the object to be coated should, if possible, be kept under 12 inches.

   (6)  The use of automatically operated spray booths should be encouraged as they offer greater protection to the sprayer than other methods commonly used.

 (c)  Drying rooms. It is recommended that, whenever possible, drying rooms for objects coated with lacquer or other materials containing highly volatile solvents should be so located that the air from the drying room is not drawn past the working area of the sprayer.

 (d)  Ducts. It is recommended that ducts be of a diameter not less than the transverse diameter of the fan. They should preferably be of larger diameter so as not to introduce unnecessary air friction. Turns in ducts should be avoided wherever possible.

 (e)  Reduction of lead content. It is recommended that the manufacturers of vitreous enamel continue their efforts to eliminate or reduce the percentage of soluble lead in these materials.

§ 35.132. Physical examinations.

 (a)  Initial. The health of persons doing spray coating may be injured by inhaling such substances as lead, poisonous solvents, especially benzol, or finely divided siliceous material. To render complete protection to spray operators from these hazards it is recommended that operators be given a physical examination, including X-ray examinations, previous to or within one week of employment, with the following two objects in view:

   (1)  To determine whether they have any physical defects which might be made worse by their employment.

   (2)  To obtain a record of their physical condition for comparison with succeeding examinations.

 (b)  Follow up. The following frequency of examinations is recommended:

   (1)  Periodic examinations of persons spraying lead or poisonous solvents should be made at least once every 6 months and should include white and red blood cell counts, differential white cell counts, and an estimation of the amount of hemoglobin.

   (2)  The periodic examinations of persons spraying vitreous enamel or other siliceous materials should be made at least once every 2 years and should include an X-ray examination of the chest.

 (c)  Guidelines for restricting employment. It is recommended that there be compliance with the following:

   (1)  No person should be permitted to perform the work of a spray operator or to come in contact in any way with spray coating operations if the results of an examination made of his blood show any evidence of a disturbance that would be aggravated by exposure to lead or benzol or any evidence of lead or benzol absorption as indicated by any of the following findings:

     (i)   The presence of 70 stipple cells per 100,000.

     (ii)   A distinct evidence of anemia as shown by hemoglobin under 12 grams per 100 cubic centimeters of blood, or red cells under 4 million per cubic millimeter for men, and 3.8 million for women.

     (iii)   A total white cell count under 5,600 per cubic millimeter, or a total polymorphonuclear cell count under 4,000 per cubic millimeter. When a second or succeeding differential count is more than 5% lower in polymorphonuclear cells than the preceding one, the individual should be reexamined in one month, or sooner if he appears to be in poor physical condition. If the recount made on such examination shows the condition to be progressive, he should not be permitted to continue spraying, regardless of his physical condition in other respects.

   (2)  No person should be permitted to spray vitreous enamel or other siliceous materials if an X-ray examination of his chest shows the presence of fibrosis or active tuberculosis. Any evidence of developing fibrosis at subsequent examinations should call for a change of occupation. Any evidence of progressive lead absorption by such persons, as indicated by the increase of stipple cells, should likewise call for a change of occupation.

§ 35.133. Fire protection.

 The following recommendations apply to fire protection:

   (1)  Ducts longer than 10 feet should have clean-out doors at 10 foot intervals, or should be so constructed as to be easily taken apart for cleaning.

   (2)  To minimize the spread of fire, finished products should be removed immediately from the vicinity of the spray booths or from the room booths, regardless of location.

   (3)  The surfaces of all booths, after they have been made clean and free from accumulations of sprayed materials, should be greased and papered, or otherwise prepared so that they may be easily cleaned.

   (4)  Spraying operations should be located under smooth ceilings.

   (5)  For the spraying of materials containing volatile solvents, there should be a separate exhaust duct for each booth.

   (6)  Where plants at present have three or more booths connected to a single exhaust fan they should, whenever possible, change equipment to conform to this subchapter.

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