§ 6.11. General.
(a) Supervision. The erection, alteration and removal of scaffolds shall be done under the direction and supervision of men thoroughly experienced in scaffold work.
(b) Lumber sizes. Lumber sizes, when used in this chapter, refer to nominal sizes except where dimensions other than standard sizes are given.
(c) Scaffolds to be provided. Scaffolds constructed in accordance with this Chapter shall be provided for workmen engaged in work that is not possible to do safely from the ground or from solid construction, except such short period work as may be done safely from ladders.
(d) Strength of lumber. Lumber used in the construction and erection of scaffolds shall be of sap pine, long leaf yellow pine, spruce, fir, Oregon pine or equivalent in strength and shall be sound, well-seasoned (except sap pine) and free from strength-reducing defects, such as knots of greater size than consistent with absolute safety, crossgrain, dip grain, shakes, large checks, brashness, rot or dote of worm holes, or other defects impairing its strength or durability. Hemlock shall not be used for scaffolds over 30 feet in height. Hemlock, when used, shall be of larger size than that required for any other species of wood. Reference should be made to the Appendix to this chapter, setting forth rating strength of lumber.
(e) Inspection of lumber and safety factor. All lumber shall be thoroughly inspected before use and all scaffolds and their supports shall be capable of supporting the load they are designed to carry with a safety factor of at least four. Scaffolds shall not at any time be overloaded.
(f) Planks for flooring. Planks used for flooring shall be of uniform thickness so as not to cause unevenness, and, in laying such planks, care shall be taken to avoid traps.
(g) Guardrails and toeboards. Guardrails and toeboards shall be provided on the outer edges and ends of the platforms of all types of scaffolds six feet or more above the ground (including rails across window openings which extend more than 34 inches above the scaffold platform) except riveters outrigger scaffolds, window jack scaffolds, and painters swinging scaffolds used for sign painting at a height not exceeding 7 feet. Toeboards are not required on painters swinging scaffolds. Guardrails and toeboards shall be securely fastened to the uprights on the side facing the platform.
(h) Dimensions of guardrails. Guardrails shall be the equivalent in strength of wood rails 2 by 4 inches and shall be not less than 34 inches in height and shall extend along the entire length of the outside and ends of platform with only such openings as may be necessary for delivery of materials. They shall be secured to uprights at intervals of not more than 8 feet.
(i) Dimensions of toeboards. Toeboards shall project not less than 6 inches above the top of the platform planks and shall be erected so as to leave no space between the platform planks and the toeboards.
(j) Nails. All nails shall be of proper size (minimum ten penny) of ample length, and of best quality and be used in sufficient quantities at each connection to develop the designed strength of the scaffold. No nails shall be subjected to a straight pull. All nails shall be driven in full length and the bending over of partly driven nails is prohibited. This subsection shall not be construed to prohibit the proper use of double headed nails.
(k) Lifelines and safety belts. Where it is necessary for workmen to crawl out on thrustouts or projecting beams, lifelines and safety belts of approved design shall be worn.
(l) Sway bracing of members. The principal members of scaffolds shall be rigidly and securely sway braced to prevent their displacement in any direction.
(m) Approval of scaffolds. All scaffolds for which specifications have not been given in this chapter, and all patented or manufactured scaffolds, parts of scaffolds or scaffolding devices and all types of scaffolds developed subsequent to May 15, 1929, shall be of an approved type.
(n) Repair of damaged scaffolds. Any scaffold that is damaged or weakened by any cause, shall be immediately repaired and workmen shall not be permitted on such scaffold until repairs have been completed.
(o) Inspection of scaffolding machine. The moving parts of scaffolding machines shall be regularly inspected twice a month by the employer of the men using the machine and a record kept of the findings of the inspections. This record shall be accessible to representatives of the Department at all times. The owner of the scaffolding machine shall be notified at once to replace any defective or worn parts and the use of the machines shall be discontinued until such replacements have been made. This record shall also be accessible to representatives of the Department. When a scaffolding machine is removed from a location it shall be thoroughly inspected and overhauled before it is again used.
(p) Tag line required. When materials are being hoisted up on a scaffold they shall have a tag line to prevent them from striking against the scaffold unless hoisting equipment is arranged so that there is no danger of material striking the scaffold.
(q) Work not permitted during storm. Men shall not be permitted to work on a scaffold during a storm or high wind, or on scaffolds which are covered with ice or snow. Clinging ice shall be removed from all guardrails and uprights and the planking sanded to prevent slipping.
(r) Working over or near water. Employes working over or near water, where the danger of drowning exists, shall be provided with United States Coast Guard approved life jackets or bouyant work vests. Life preservers shall be inspected for defects which would alter their strength of bouyancy. Defective units shall not be used. Ring buoys with at least 90 feet of line shall be provided and readily available for emergency rescue operations. The distance between ring buoys shall not exceed 200 feet. At least one lifesaving skiff shall be immediately available at locations where employes are working over or adjacent to water.
The provisions of this § 6.11 amended November 20, 1971, 1 Pa.B. 2166.
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