Pennsylvania Code & Bulletin

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The Pennsylvania Code website reflects the Pennsylvania Code changes effective through 52 Pa.B. 3668 (June 25, 2022).

52 Pa. Code § 5.412. Written testimony.

§ 5.412. Written testimony.

 (a)  General. Use of written testimony in Commission proceedings is encouraged, especially in connection with the testimony of expert witnesses. Written direct testimony is required of expert witnesses testifying in rate cases.

 (b)  Use. The presiding officer may direct that expert testimony to be given upon direct examination be submitted as prepared written testimony. A reasonable period of time will be allowed to prepare written testimony.

 (c)  Rules regarding use. Written testimony is subject to the same rules of admissibility and cross-examination of the sponsoring witness as if it were presented orally in the usual manner.

 (d)  Cross-examination. Cross-examination of the witness presenting written testimony shall proceed at the hearing at which testimony is authenticated if service of the written testimony is made upon each party of record at least 20 days prior to the hearing, unless the presiding officer for good cause otherwise directs. In a rate proceeding, the presiding officer or the Commission will establish the schedule for the filing and authentication of written testimony, and for cross-examination by other parties.

 (e)  Form. Written testimony must normally be prepared in question and answer form, include a statement of the qualifications of the witness and be accompanied by exhibits to which it relates. A party offering prepared written testimony shall insert line numbers in the left-hand margin on each page. A party should also use a logical and sequential numbering system to identify the written testimony of individual witnesses.

 (f)  Service. Written testimony shall be served upon the presiding officer and parties in the proceeding in accordance with the schedule established by this chapter. At the same time the testimony is served, a certificate of service for the testimony shall be filed with the Secretary. Pre-served testimony furnished to the court reporter during an adjudicatory proceeding before the Commission shall be filed with the Commission as required under §  5.412a (relating to electronic submission of pre-served testimony).

 (g)  Copies. At the hearing at which the testimony is authenticated, counsel for the witness shall provide two copies of the testimony to the court reporter.

 (h)  Supersession. Subsections (a)—(g) supersede 1 Pa. Code § §  35.138, 35.150 and 35.166 (relating to expert witnesses; scope and conduct of examination; and prepared expert testimony).


   The provisions of this §  5.412 amended under the Public Utility Code, 66 Pa.C.S. § §  309—311, 315, 331—335, 501, 504—506, 701—703, 1101—1103, 1301 and 1501.


   The provisions of this §  5.412 adopted October 12, 1984, effective January 1, 1985, 14 Pa.B. 3819; amended December 2, 1988, effective January 3, 1989, 18 Pa.B. 5451; amended January 24, 1997, effective January 25, 1997, 27 Pa.B. 414; amended April 28, 2006, effective April 29, 2006, 36 Pa.B. 2097; amended December 19, 2014, effective December 20, 2014, 44 Pa.B. 7852. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (368433) to (368434).

Cross References

   This section cited in 52 Pa. Code §  5.412a (relating to electronic submission of pre-served testimony).

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