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67 Pa. Code § 212.1. Definitions.

§ 212.1. Definitions.

 The following words and terms, when used in this chapter, have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

   ADTAverage daily traffic—The total volume of traffic during a number of whole days—more than 1 day and less than 1 year—divided by the number of days in that period.

   Active work zone—The portion of a work zone where construction, maintenance or utility workers are on the roadway or on the shoulder of the highway, and workers are adjacent to an active travel lane. Workers are not considered adjacent to an open travel lane if they are protected by a traffic barrier and no ingress or egress to the work zone exists through an opening in the traffic barrier.

   Advisory speed—The recommended speed for vehicles operating on a section of highway based on the highway design, operating characteristics and conditions. When posted, the speed is displayed as a warning sign; that is, either a black-on-yellow or a black-on-orange sign.

   Angle parking—Parking, other than parallel parking, which is designed and designated so that the longitudinal axis of the vehicle is not parallel with the edge of the roadway.


     (i)   An organized gathering of people without vehicles, or with vehicles that are stationary, which encroaches onto a street or highway and interferes with the movement of pedestrian or vehicular traffic.

     (ii)   The term includes street fairs, block parties and other recreational events.

   Bureau—The Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering, which is the office of the Department responsible for traffic regulations and statewide policies regarding traffic-control devices.

   City of the first and second class—A city so classified in accordance with section 1 the act of June 25, 1895 (P. L. 275, No. 188) (53 P. S. §  101), known as the City Classification Law.

   Conventional highway—A highway other than an expressway or a freeway.

   Corner sight distance

     (i)   Available corner sight distance—The maximum measured distance along a crossing highway which a driver stopped at a side road or driveway along that highway can continuously see another vehicle approaching. For the purpose of measuring the available sight distance, the height of both the driver’s eye and the approaching vehicle should be assumed to be 3.5 feet above the road surface. In addition, the driver’s eye should be assumed to be 10 feet back from the near edge of the highway or the near edge of the closest travel lane if parking is permitted along the highway.

     (ii)   Minimum corner sight distance—The minimum required corner sight distance based on engineering and traffic studies, to ensure the safe operation of an intersection. The minimum value is a function of the speed of the approaching vehicles and the prevailing geometrics.


     (i)   A collision involving one or more vehicles.

     (ii)   Unless the context clearly indicates otherwise, the term only includes those collisions that require a police report; that is, the collision involves one of the following:

       (A)   Injury to or death of any person.

       (B)   Damage to any vehicle involved to the extent that it cannot be driven under its own power in its customary manner without further damage or hazard to the vehicle, to other traffic elements, or to the roadway, and therefore requires towing.

   Department—The Department of Transportation of the Commonwealth.

   Delineator—A retroreflective device mounted on the road surface or at the side of the roadway in a series to indicate the alignment of the roadway, especially at night or in adverse weather.

   Divided highway—A highway divided into two or more roadways and so constructed as to impede vehicular traffic between the roadways by providing an intervening space, physical barrier or clearly indicated dividing section.

   85th percentile speed—The speed on a roadway at or below which 85% of the motor vehicles travel.

   Engineering and traffic study—An orderly examination or analysis of physical features and traffic conditions on or along a highway, conducted in accordance with this chapter for the purpose of ascertaining the need or lack of need of specific traffic restrictions, and the application of traffic-control devices.

   Expressway—A divided arterial highway for through traffic with partial control of access and generally with grade separations at major intersections.

   Freeway—A limited access highway to which the only means of ingress and egress is by interchange ramps.

   Grade—The up or down slope in the longitudinal direction of the highway, expressed in percent, which is the number of units of change in elevation per 100 units of horizontal distance. An upward slope is a positive grade; a downward slope is a negative grade.


     (i)   The entire width between the boundary lines of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel.

     (ii)   The term includes a roadway open to the use of the public for vehicular travel on grounds of a college or university, or public or private school, or public or historical park.

   Local authorities

     (i)   County, municipal and other local boards or bodies having authority to enact regulations relating to traffic.

     (ii)   The term includes airport authorities except when those authorities are within counties of the first class or counties of the second class.

     (iii)   The term also includes State agencies, boards and commissions other than the Department, and governing bodies of colleges, universities, public and private schools, public and historical parks.

   MUTCD—The current edition of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, as adopted by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and available on the FHWA website.

   Narrow bridge or underpass—A bridge, culvert or underpass with a two-way roadway clearance width of 16 to 18 feet, or any bridge, culvert or underpass having a roadway clearance less than the width of the approach travel lanes.

   Night or nighttime—The time from 1/2 hour after sunset to 1/2 hour before sunrise.

   Normal speed limit—The regulatory speed limit or the 85th percentile speed that existed before temporary traffic control was established, for example, prior to the beginning of a work zone.

   Numbered traffic route—A highway that has been assigned an Interstate, United States or Pennsylvania route number, consisting of one, two, or three digits, sometimes with an additional designation such as business route, truck route or other similar designation.

   Private parking lot—A privately owned parking lot open to the public for parking with or without restriction or charge.


     (i)   An organized group of individuals, or individuals with vehicles, animals or objects, moving along a highway on the roadway, berm or shoulder in a manner that interferes with the normal movement of traffic.

     (ii)   The term includes walks, runs, parades and marches.

   Retroreflective sheeting

     (i)   Material which allows a large portion of the light coming from a point source to be returned directly back to a location near its origin, and is used to enhance the nighttime reflectivity of traffic control signs, delineators, barricades and other devices.

     (ii)   The term includes materials with nonexposed glass bead lens and microprismatic retroreflective sheeting.

   Roadway—That portion of a highway improved, designed or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the sidewalk, berm or shoulder. If a highway includes two or more separate roadways, the term refers to each roadway separately but not to all roadways collectively.

   Safe-running speed—The average speed for a portion of highway determined by making a minimum of five test runs while periodically recording the speed at different locations while driving at a speed which is reasonable and prudent, giving consideration to the available corner and stopping sight distance, spacing of intersections, roadside development and other conditions.

   Sales Store—The Department facility that sells maps and publications.

   School—A public, private or parochial facility for the education of students in grades kindergarten through 12.

   School zone—A portion of a highway that at least partially abuts a school property or extends beyond the school property line that is used by students to walk to or from school or to or from a school bus pick-up or drop-off location at a school.

   Secretary—The Secretary of the Department.

   Special activity

     (i)   An organized vehicle race, speed competition or contest, drag race or acceleration contest, test of physical endurance, exhibition of speed or acceleration, or any other type of event conducted for the purpose of making a speed record.

     (ii)   The term includes those races defined in 75 Pa.C.S. §  3367 (relating to racing on highways).

   State-designated highway—A highway or bridge on the system of highways and bridges over which the Department has assumed or has been legislatively given jurisdiction.

   Stopping sight distance—The length of highway over which a 2-foot high object on the roadway is continuously visible to the driver, with the driver’s eye height assumed to be 3.5 feet above the road surface.

   TTCTemporary traffic control—An area of a highway where road user conditions are changed because of a work zone or incident by use of temporary traffic-control devices, flaggers, police officers or other authorized personnel.

   TTC plan—A plan for maintaining traffic through or around a work zone.

   Through highway

     (i)   A highway or portion of a highway on which vehicular traffic is given preferential right-of-way, and at the entrances to which vehicular traffic from intersecting highways is required by law to yield the right-of-way in obedience to a Stop Sign (R1-1), Yield Sign (R1-2) or other traffic-control device when the signs or devices are erected as provided in this chapter.

     (ii)   The term includes all expressways and freeways.

   Traffic calming—The combination of primarily physical measures taken to reduce the negative effects of motor vehicle use, alter driver behavior and improve conditions for nonmotorized street users. The primary objectives of traffic calming measures are to reduce speeding and to reduce the volume of cut-through traffic on neighborhood streets.

   Traffic-control devices—Signs, signals, markings and devices consistent with this chapter placed or erected by authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction, for the purpose of regulating, warning or guiding traffic.

   Traffic restriction—A restriction designated by a traffic-control device to regulate the speed, direction, movement, placement or kind of traffic using any highway.

   Traffic signal

     (i)   A power-operated traffic-control device other than a sign, warning light, flashing arrow panel or steady-burn electric lamp.

     (ii)   The term includes traffic-control signals, pedestrian signals, beacons, in-roadway warning lights, lane-use-control signals, movable bridge signals, emergency traffic signals, firehouse warning devices, ramp and highway metering signals and weigh station signals.

   Travel lane

     (i)   A lane of a highway which is used for travel by vehicles.

     (ii)   A lane in which parking is permitted during off-peak hours but is restricted for use as a travel lane during peak hours to obtain greater traffic movement.

   Warrant—A description of the threshold conditions to be used in evaluating the potential safety and operational benefits of traffic-control devices based upon average or normal conditions.

   Work zone—The area of a highway where construction, maintenance or utility work activities are being conducted, and in which traffic-control devices are required in accordance with this chapter.

Cross References

   This section cited in 67 Pa. Code §  212.114 (relating to stopping, standing and parking restrictions); and 67 Pa. Code §  212.202 (relating to no-passing zones).

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