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The Pennsylvania Code website reflects the Pennsylvania Code changes effective through 54 Pa.B. 2336 (April 27, 2024).

Pennsylvania Code




15.91.    Rules of grammar.
15.92.    Consistency.
15.93.    Brevity.
15.94.    Directness.
15.95.    Provisos.
15.96.    Limitations, exceptions and conditions.
15.97.    Enumerations.
15.98.    Dangling paragraphs.


15.111.    Tense.
15.112.    Mood.
15.113.    Voice.
15.114.    Person.
15.115.    Number.
15.116.    Gender.


15.121.    U. S. Printing Style Manual.
15.122.    Capitalization in general.
15.123.    When to use capitalization.
15.124.    When not to use capitalization.
15.125.    Punctuation in general.
15.126.    Commas.
15.127.    Semicolons.
15.128.    Colons.
15.129.    Parentheses.
15.130.    Quotation marks.


15.141.    Choice of words and phrases.
15.142.    Articles and adjectives.
15.143.    ‘‘Shall’’ and ‘‘may.’’
15.144.    Expressions to be avoided.
15.145.    Preferred expressions.


15.151.    Numbers.
15.152.    Money, percentages and measurements.
15.153.    Time and age.
15.154.    Dates.


15.161.    Pennsylvania statutes.
15.162.    Consolidated Pennsylvania Statutes.
15.163.    Federal statutes.
15.164.    Pennsylvania Constitution.
15.165.    Pennsylvania Code and Bulletin.
15.166.    Major subdivisions and sections.
15.167.    Minor subdivisions.
15.168.    Multiple references.


§ 15.91. Rules of grammar.

 (a)  General. Generally, the ordinary rules of grammar apply to legislative drafting except that in a few instances a departure from common usage is desirable.

 (b)  Statutory construction. The act (1 Pa.C.S. §  1923) provides that grammatical errors shall not vitiate a statute.

§ 15.92. Consistency.

 (a)  General. The same arrangement and form of expression should be used throughout the statute unless the meaning requires variation. Consistency helps to avoid having a different construction placed on similar provisions.

 (b)  Words and phrases. Because different words and phrases are presumed to refer to different things, do not use different words or phrases to denote the same thing. Conversely, because the same word or phrase is presumed to refer to the same thing each time it is used, do not use it to denote different things.

 (c)  Structure. Be consistent in approach as well as in the use of particular words. If two sections or minor subdivisions are similar in substance, arrange them similarly.

§ 15.93. Brevity.

 (a)  General. No unnecessary word must be used. The courts seek to give effect to every word. An unnecessary word may defeat the true purpose of a statute. If a word has the same meaning as a phrase, the word should be used. The shortest sentences which bring out the meaning intended should be used. Compound sentences should be avoided.

 (b)  Technical and complicated subjects. Simplicity and brevity should not, of course, be carried to an extreme. A technical subject cannot be treated without the use of some technical language. Care must be taken not to treat inadequately a complicated subject. Preciseness must not be sacrificed to simplicity. Be sure you say what you want to say and that it is neither too comprehensive nor too restricted.

§ 15.94. Directness.

 (a)  Positive expression. Where the same idea can be accurately expressed either positively or negatively, express it positively. Do not say ‘‘Indigents other than those without children may’’ but say ‘‘Indigents with children may.......’’

 (b)  Negative expression. The negative form (‘‘No person may....., unless....’’) is appropriate, however, where the provision is intended to be mandatory (i.e., compliance is a condition precedent to the validity of the transaction). Conversely, do not use it in provisions that are intended to be only directory (i.e., compliance is not such a condition).

§ 15.95. Provisos.

 (a)  Use. The use of provisos should be avoided. See section 15.145 of this Title (relating to preferred expressions). ‘‘Provided, That’’ and ‘‘Provided, however, That’’ are much abused phrases. They are meaningless when used to introduce an additional provision that should be expressed by a direct statement. There is no special case that cannot be expressed equally well by a direct statement. They are often improperly used to introduce a new idea or a separate statement not necessarily connected with the preceding clause. They should be used only for introducing exceptions and qualifications to the preceding clause.

 (b)  Statutory construction. The act (1 Pa.C.S. §  1924) provides that provisos shall be construed to limit rather than to extend the operation of the clauses to which they refer.

§ 15.96. Limitations, exceptions and conditions.

 (a)  General. If a provision is limited in its application or is subject to an exception or condition, it will frequently promote clarity to begin the sentence with the limitation, exception, or condition, or with an expression calling attention to any limitation that follows. If limitations, exceptions or conditions apply to the whole statute they should be in a section at the beginning of the statute; if to a section, at the beginning of the section.

 (b)  Form. If the circumstances under which the rule is to apply can be stated briefly and simply, they should precede the rule itself. If there is a simple exception to the rule, place the exception at the end of the rule as follows: ‘‘This act applies to all persons except persons 65 years of age or older.’’ However, if the circumstances in which the rule is to apply involve numerous contingencies or conditions, the general rule should be stated first and the conditions listed in tabular form or placed in a separate subsection stating the exceptions as follows:

 ‘‘This act applies to all persons except:

   (1)  Persons 65 years of age or older.

   (2)  ‘‘Persons who have resided in the State for less than one year.’’

 ‘‘(d)  Except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, the board may........ etc.

 ‘‘(e)   This section does not apply to ......... etc.’’

 (c)  Statutory construction. The act (1 Pa.C.S. §  1924) provides that exceptions expressed in a statute shall be construed to exclude all others.

§ 15.97. Enumerations.

 (a)  General. Enumerations are dangerous both alone and following or preceding a general term. In most cases it is impossible to make an enumeration complete. In such cases the courts apply the rule ‘‘expressio unius est exclusio alterius’’ and refuse to apply the statute to something that would have been included if someone had thought of it in time. The enumeration preceding or following a general term brings the ‘‘ejusdem generis’’ rule into play and restricts the application of the statute to things similar to those enumerated even though the general term is of wider application. General terms alone should therefore be used in all cases without specific enumeration.

 (b)  Form. In a series, list, or other enumeration, introductory language that applies to more than one item named must apply to all. In an enumeration of items that are to be taken together, connect the last two items by ‘‘and.’’ In an enumeration of items that are to be taken in the alternative, use ‘‘or.’’ Sometimes it is hard to tell which is appropriate. The problem is to determine what, specifically, you are enumerating. In an enumeration of items that are to be taken both together and in the alternative, say ‘‘A or B, or both,’’ if two items are involved (not ‘‘and/or’’); or ‘‘one or more of the following:’’ if more than two items are involved. Thus the problem of whether to use ‘‘and’’ or ‘‘or’’ can sometimes be by-passed by using the tabular form with appropriate introductory language.

§ 15.98. Dangling paragraphs.

 A paragraph without designation should not be added at the end of a section consisting of several paragraphs. This is sometimes referred to as a ‘‘dangling paragraph.’’ If it affects the last paragraph only, it should be a part of the paragraph containing it; otherwise the provision including the paragraphs should be made one subsection, and the added paragraph a separate subsection. There are even times when a dangling paragraph should be a separate section.


§ 15.111. Tense.

 (a)  General. A statute is regarded as constantly speaking. It speaks as of the time when it is read or applied. It must, therefore, be written in the present tense, except for stating a condition precedent to its operation, which should be phrased in the perfect tense if it is required to be completed before the statute applies. The use of the word ‘‘shall’’ in imposing a duty or prohibition does not indicate the future tense. Even where an action is required on a specified future date, the form of expression is not in the future tense. In speaking in the present, a circumstance which puts a provision of a statute in operation, if continuing to exist is in the present tense, if completed is in the perfect tense, but is never in the future or future perfect.

 (b)  Statutory construction. The act (1 Pa.C.S. §  1902) provides that words used in the past or present tense shall include the future.

§ 15.112. Mood.

 (a)  General. The indicative rather than the subjunctive mood should be used in statutes. The subjunctive mood has no place in a statute since a statute deals with facts and not with hypothetical cases.

 (b)  Use of ‘‘shall.’’ The word ‘‘shall’’ should not be used in a statute to state a legal result (false imperative) but should be used in mandatory statutes requiring a certain legal act.

§ 15.113. Voice.

 The active voice (e.g. ‘‘The board shall appoint a director’’) should be used in statutes instead of the passive voice (e.g. ‘‘A director shall be appointed by the board’’).

§ 15.114. Person.

 The third person should be used in statutes rather than the first or second person.

§ 15.115. Number.

 (a)  General. The singular should be used in a statute whenever possible rather than the plural.

 (b)  Statutory construction. The act (1 Pa.C.S. §  1902) provides that the singular shall include the plural and the plural the singular.

§ 15.116. Gender.

 (a)  General. The phrases ‘‘he or she’’ and ‘‘his or hers’’ should be avoided in a statute when referring to a person affected by a statute. The word ‘‘he’’ or ‘‘his’’ is preferred.

 (b)  Statutory construction. The act (1 Pa.C.S. §  1902) provides that the masculine gender shall include the feminine and neuter.


§ 15.121. U. S. Printing Style Manual.

 Capitalization and punctuation should conform in general to the most recent edition of the United States Government Printing Office Style Manual.

§ 15.122. Capitalization in general.

 A departure from the ordinary rules of capitalization is suggested for legislative drafting. In general, capitalize as little as possible. The lower case is easier to read and easier to write.

§ 15.123. When to use capitalization.

 Capitalization should be used in the following circumstances:

   (1)  The initial word in a sentence.

   (2)  The initial word in enumerations set out as separate paragraphs which end in a period.

   (3)  Months and days of the week.

   (4)  The word state, county, city, borough, town and township when used as part of a proper name (e.g. Dauphin County).

   (5)  The word or phrase Pennsylvania, Commonwealth, Federal Government and United States.

   (6)  Names of specific persons (Charles M. Smith), places (Blue Ridge Mountains), historic events (World War II) and holidays (Christmas Day).

   (7)  Short titles and popular names of statutes (Securities Act).

   (8)  The word part or other major subdivision designation when accompanied by the part or major subdivision number.

§ 15.124. When not to use capitalization.

 Capitalization should not be used in the following circumstances:

   (1)  The initial word in enumerations set out as separate paragraphs which end in a semicolon.

   (2)  A word indicating a geographic location (northern Pennsylvania).

   (3)  References to official agencies (department) or officers (secretary) unless accompanied by the full title of such agency (Department of Revenue) or officer (Secretary of Revenue).

   (4)  The word act, statute, section or name of minor subdivision.

§ 15.125. Punctuation in general.

 (a)  General. A statute must be punctuated carefully since it may be relied upon by the courts in interpreting statutes. A sentence should be rearranged if a change in punctuation might change its meaning.

 (b)  Statutory construction. The act (1 Pa.C.S. §  1923) provides that in no case shall the punctuation of a statute control or affect the intention of the General Assembly in the enactment thereof unless the statute was finally enacted after December 31, 1964.

§ 15.126. Commas.

 The following are guidelines for the use of commas:

   (1)  If a sentence consists of two independent clauses, each with subject and predicate, use a comma before the conjunction.

   (2)  If the second part of a sentence has no subject, a comma is unnecessary unless required for clarity.

   (3)  Enclose a parenthetical phrase or clause with two commas.

   (4)  Words, phrases, or clauses in a series are separated by commas.

   (5)  The use of the comma before the conjunction connecting the last two members of a series is preferable, but the comma may be omitted unless required for clarity.

§ 15.127. Semicolons.

 The following are guidelines for the use of semicolons:

   (1)  Use the semicolon between two main clauses not joined by one of the simple co-ordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for).

   (2)  Use the semicolon to separate two or more co-ordinate elements, one or both of which contain commas.

   (3)  Use the semicolon at the end of enumerations in separate paragraphs which take the form of a sentence and are either in the conjunctive or disjunctive.

§ 15.128. Colons.

 The following are guidelines for the use of colons:

   (1)  Use the colon to introduce a series in tabular form or otherwise.

   (2)  Use the colon to introduce a long quotation.

§ 15.129. Parentheses.

 Parentheses are generally frowned upon, but they are sometimes more reliable than commas in setting off a phrase where there is possible uncertainty as to how the ideas that follow the phrase are linked to the ideas that precede it.

§ 15.130. Quotation marks.

 (a)  Use. Quotation marks should not be overused. In legislative drafting quotation marks are usually used only to enclose:

   (1)  Titles or texts of statutes referred to or incorporated by reference.

   (2)  Defined words or phrases.

 (b)  Location of punctuation. Periods and commas are placed inside quotation marks, as a general rule. Other punctuation marks normally go outside the quotation marks, unless they are part of the matter quoted.


§ 15.141. Choice of words and phrases.

 (a)  General. The objective in legislative drafting is to make the final product as precise and understandable as possible. There are hundreds of expressions, legal and otherwise, that can be simplified. The choice of words is important. They should be plain and well understood. Well turned phrases are effective in lawyers’ briefs and in court opinions, but have no place in statutes. Language which is peculiarly limited to legal diction should be avoided in favor of ordinary and common phraseology, if the popular words convey the meaning equally well.

 (b)  Guidelines. In drafting statutes, the following general guidelines should be followed:

   (1)  Select short, familiar words and phrases that best express the intended meaning according to common and approved usage.

   (2)  Never use a long word where a short one will do.

   (3)  If it is possible omit a word and preserve the desired meaning, always omit the word.

   (4)  Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if an everyday English equivalent can be used.

   (5)  Use the same word throughout if the same meaning is intended and do not use the same word to denote different meanings.

   (6)  Avoid the use of indefinite terms, such as ‘‘reasonable’’ that invite litigation but supply a definite standard or vest discretion in a designated official where it is appropriate.

§ 15.142. Articles and adjectives.

 (a)  Articles. Consistent use of the articles ‘‘a’’ or ‘‘an’’ will result in smoother writing and more precise expression. ‘‘A person who violates’’ is preferred to ‘‘any person who violates,’’ ‘‘each person who violates,’’ or ‘‘all persons who violate.’’

 (b)  Demonstrative adjectives. Although the word ‘‘such’’ is commonly used in legislation as a demonstrative adjective (i.e., as a word pointing at a particular person, object, or entity already referred to), this use is undesirable because it is improper under general writing standards, it is a stilted way of saying something better expressed by ‘‘that,’’ ‘‘the,’’ ‘‘those,’’ ‘‘it,’’ ‘‘them,’’ etc., and it is easily confused with the more appropriate uses of the word. Likewise, the words ‘‘said,’’ ‘‘aforesaid,’’ ‘‘hereinabove,’’ ‘‘beforementioned,’’ ‘‘whatsoever,’’ or similar words of reference or emphasis should be avoided.

 (c)  Pronominal indefinite adjectives. Use adjectives such as ‘‘each,’’ ‘‘every,’’ ‘‘any,’’ ‘‘all,’’ ‘‘no,’’ and ‘‘some’’ (technically known as ‘‘pronominal indefinite adjectives’’) only where necessary. If the subject of the sentence is plural, it is almost never necessary to use such an adjective (e.g., ‘‘Qualified State officers shall .....’’; ‘‘Qualified State officers may not.....’’). If the subject of the sentence is singular, use the pronominal indefinite only when the article ‘‘a’’ or ‘‘the’’ is inadequate, as when the use of ‘‘a’’ would allow the unintended interpretation that the obligation is to be discharged (or the privilege exhausted) by applying it to a single member of the class instead of to all of them. If it is necessary to use a pronominal indefinite, follow these conventions:

   (1)  If a right, privilege, or power is conferred, use ‘‘any’’ (e.g., ‘‘Any qualified State officer may......’’).

   (2)  If an obligation to act is imposed, use ‘‘each’’ (e.g., ‘‘Each qualified State officer shall.....’’).

   (3)  If a right, privilege, or power is abridged, or an obligation to abstain from acting is imposed, use ‘‘no’’ (e.g., ‘‘No qualified State officer may.....’’).

§ 15.143. ‘‘Shall’’ and ‘‘may.’’

 (a)  Function of statute. The principal functions of a statute are to:

   (1)  Create.

   (2)  Impose a duty or obligation.

   (3)  Prohibit.

   (4)  Confer a right, power or privilege.

 (b)  Duty, obligation or prohibition. Whenever possible, use ‘‘shall’’ only in the imperative sense. A duty or obligation is expressed by ‘‘shall’’ and a prohibition by ‘‘shall not.’’ However, ‘‘may’’ should be used in the case of a negative subject. For example, ‘‘No person shall....’’ means that no one is required to act. So read, it negates the obligation, but not the permission, to act. On the other hand, ‘‘No person may .....’’ negates also the permission and is, therefore, the stronger prohibition.

 (c)  Right, power or privilege. Whenever possible, use ‘‘may’’ only in the permissive sense. A right, power or privilege is expressed by ‘‘may’’ and an abridgement of a right, power or privilege by ‘‘may not.’’ Where an intended right might be construed as merely an unenforcible privilege, use ‘‘is entitled.’’ Where a power conferred on a public authority is liable to be construed by the courts as a duty, the word ‘‘may’’ should be followed by words such as ‘‘in his discretion’’ unless ‘‘may’’ has been expressly defined as being only permissive.

§ 15.144. Expressions to be avoided.

 (a)  Forbidden words. Avoid the following terms altogether:

above (as an adjective)said (as a substitute for
 ‘‘the,’’ ‘‘that,’’ or ‘‘those’’)
afore-mentionedsame (as a substitute for
 ‘‘it,’’ ‘‘he,’’ ‘‘him,’’ etc.)
before-mentionedto wit
provided that

 (b)  Pairs of words having same effect. Avoid the following pairs of words having the same effect:

authorize and empowereach and all
by and witheach and every
final and conclusiveorder and direct
from and afterover and above
full and completesole and exclusive
full force and effecttype and kind
made and entered intounless and until
null and void

 (c)  Pairs of words having different effect. Avoid the following pairs of words one of which includes the other and use the broader or narrower terms as the substance requires:

any and alldesire and require
authorize and directmeans and includes
by and under

§ 15.145. Preferred expressions.

 Unless there are special reasons to the contrary, the following expressions should be avoided or used as indicated:

  Avoid  Use
it is directedshall
it is the dutyshall
is authorizedmay
is empoweredmay
it shall be lawfulmay
prior tobefore
subsequent toafter
at the timewhen
hereafterafter this act takes effect
heretoforebefore this act takes effect
period of timeperiod, time
during such time aswhile
during the course ofduring
for the duration ofduring
until such time asuntil
per annum, per day, per foota year, a day, a foot
per centumpercent
pursuant tounder
under the provisions ofunder
provision of lawlaw
effectuatecarry out
and/or‘‘either X or Y or both of them’’ or ‘‘X  and Y or either of them’’
is able tocan
is unable tocannot
the CongressCongress
law passedlaw enacted
enter into a contract withcontract with
is binding uponbinds
provided, further; provided,
 however; provided that
‘‘except,’’ ‘‘but’’ or
 ‘‘however’’ or start a new
provided (conjunction)‘‘if’’ or ‘‘but’’
every person, all personsa person
null and voidvoid
constitute and appointappoint
is applicableapplies
fail, refuse or neglectfail
is able tocan
is unable tocannot
effectuatecarry out
be and the same is herebyis
is defined and shall be
 construed to mean
means and includes‘‘means’’ or ‘‘includes’’ as


§ 15.151. Numbers.

 (a)  General. The numbers ten and under, when not used in a citation, date, monetary amount, percentage, or similar quantity, are expressed in words only in running text. The number 11 and larger and numbers used in citations, dates, monetary amounts, percentages, and similar quantities are expressed in figures only.

 (b)  Exceptions. The numbers 11 and larger are expressed in words when used at the beginning of a sentence and the numbers ten and under are expressed in figures when set forth in tabular form or when used in combination with other numbers one of which is 11 or larger.

§ 15.152. Money, percentages and measurements.

 (a)  Money and percentages. Monetary sums and percentages are expressed in figures only as follows:


   25 1/2%





 (b)  Measurements. Measurements are expressed in figures as follows:

   1 1/2 miles

   6 acres

   90 gallons

§ 15.153. Time and age.

 (a)  Time. Time is expressed in figures as follows:

   9:30 a.m.

   4:30 p.m.

   10 p.m.

   12 noon

   12 midnight

 (b)  Age. Age is expressed in figures in accordance with the following guidelines:

   (1)  A person attains a given age on the day preceding his birthday.

   (2)  Where the age referred to is to be included, use ‘‘18 years of age or older’’ and not ‘‘over 18 years of age.’’

   (3)  Where both ages referred to are to be included, use ‘‘18 years of age or older and 50 years of age or under’’ and not ‘‘between the ages of 18 and 50.’’

§ 15.154. Dates.

 (a)  General. Dates are expressed in figures as follows:

   June 1956

   June 1, 1956

   June 1 (not ‘‘June first’’ or ‘‘first day of June’’)

 (b)  Period of time. When specifying a period of time, make clear what the first and last days are. For example, a period of time that begins July 1, 1961 and ends June 30, 1962 should be expressed ‘‘after June 30, 1961 and before July 1, 1962’’ and not ‘‘from July 1, 1961 to June 30, 1962’’ or ‘‘between July 1, 1961 and June 30, 1962.’’

 (c)  Terms of reference. Since a statute is considered to be continuously speaking, do not use words like ‘‘now,’’ ‘‘present,’’ ‘‘already,’’ ‘‘heretofore,’’ or ‘‘hereafter’’ to relate events to the time when the law takes effect. Relate them expressly to that event (‘‘when this act takes effect,’’ ‘‘before this act takes effect,’’ etc.). When used to fix the beginning or end of a period, the word ‘‘time’’ is liable to be construed as referring to the exact time during the day or night when the event occurs. If you intend that the period is to be measured in whole days only, say ‘‘day’’ instead of ‘‘time.’’


§ 15.161. Pennsylvania statutes.

 (a)  General. Any statute other than a provision of the Consolidated Pennsylvania Statutes shall be cited by reference to its date of enactment, and the page number (e.g. P. L. 406) and act number (e.g. No. 21), if any, assigned in the Laws of Pennsylvania.

 (b)  Official short title. If the statute has an official statutory short title, the short title shall be set forth without the use of quotation marks as follows:

   ‘‘act of June 4, 1945 (P. L. 1388, No. 442), known as the Administrative Agency Law.’’

 (c)  Popular name or summary of title. If the statute has no statutory short title, the popular name of the statute or, if there is no popular name, a brief summary of the title may be set forth without the use of quotation marks as follows:

   ‘‘act of May 13, 1909 (P. L. 520, No. 2912), referred to as the Pure Food Law.’’

   ‘‘act of June 3, 1911 (P. L. 639, No. 246), relating to medicine and surgery.’’

 (d)  Special session. If the statute was passed during a special session, a reference to the special session and special session number, if any, shall be set forth as follows:

   ‘‘act of April 27, 1966 (1st Sp.Sess., P. L. 31, No. 1), known as The Bituminous Mine Subsidence and Land Conservation Act of 1966.’’

 (e)  Year of pamphlet law. If a statute is finally enacted in the year following the year of the volume of the Laws of Pennsylvania containing the statute, the year of the volume of the Laws of Pennsylvania shall be set forth as follows:

   ‘‘act of January 26, 1972 (1971 P. L. 761, No. 188), known as the Capital Budget Act of 1971.’’

§ 15.162. Consolidated Pennsylvania Statutes.

 The Consolidated Pennsylvania Statutes are cited by reference to the title number, official short form of citation (Pa.S), provision referred to and a cross reference description of the provision as follows:

   1 Pa.C.S. §  1909 (relating to publication)

   Subchapter B of Chapter 73 of Title 18 of the

     Consolidated Pennsylvania Statutes (relating to

     Sunday trading)

   Chapter 7 of Title 18 of the Consolidated Pennsylvania

     Statutes (relating to responsibility)

   Title 18 of the Consolidated Pennsylvania Statutes

     (relating to crimes and offenses)

§ 15.163. Federal statutes.

 (a)  Statutes at large. In citing the U. S. Statutes at Large, reference should be made to the Public Law number if available, otherwise the date of enactment, and section, volume, and page. The page number should refer to the page on which the section cited begins:

   ‘‘Public Law 85-325, Part III, §  121, 71 Stat. 637.’’

   ‘‘act of October 31, 1951, §  50(b), 65 Stat. 727.’’

 (b)  U. S. Code. In citing provisions of the U. S. Code which have been enacted into positive law, reference should be made to title and section number in the same manner as citation of the Consolidated Pennsylvania Statutes as follows:

   ‘‘28 United States Code §  2254 (relating to state custody, remedies in Federal courts).’’

§ 15.164. Pennsylvania Constitution.

 (a)  General. The Constitution of Pennsylvania is cited by reference to the provision referred to and article as follows:

   ‘‘section 18 of Article V of the Constitution of Pennsylvania’’

   ‘‘section 21, Schedule to Article V of the Constitution of Pennsylvania’’

 (b)  Constitution of 1874. The Constitution of Pennsylvania, as adopted by referendum of December 16, 1873, shall be known and may be cited as the ‘‘Constitution of 1874.’’

 (c)  Constitution of 1968. The Constitution of Pennsylvania, as amended by referenda of May 17, 1966, November 8, 1966, May 16, 1967 and April 23, 1968 and as numbered by proclamation of the Governor of this Commonwealth of July 7, 1967 pursuant to the act of August 17, 1965 (No.180), shall be known and may be cited as the ‘‘Constitution of 1968.’’

§ 15.165. Pennsylvania Code and Bulletin.

 (a)  Pennsylvania Code. The Pennsylvania Code is cited as provided in 1 Pa. Code §  1.2 (relating to citation of Pennsylvania Code) as follows:

   ‘‘1 Pa. Code §  1.2.’’

 (b)  Pennsylvania Bulletin. The Pennsylvania Bulletin is cited as provided in 1 Pa. Code §  9.82 (relating to references to Pennsylvania Bulletin) as follows:

   ‘‘1 Pa.B. 801.’’

§ 15.166. Major subdivisions and sections.

 (a)  References to other statute. Major subdivisions and sections of other statutes are cited by reference to the provision referred to and the statute containing the provision as follows:

   Subchapter A of Chapter 31 of the act of .....

   Chapter 31 of the act of .....

   section 411 of the act of .....

 (b)  References within statute. Major subdivisions and sections within the statute containing the reference are cited by reference to the provision referred to without the reference ‘‘of this act’’ as follows:

   Subchapter A of Chapter 31

   Chapter 31

   section 411

§ 15.167. Minor subdivisions.

 (a)  General. Minor subdivisions of statutes are cited by reference to the highest unit cited in the reference.

 (b)  Other section. Minor subdivisions in another section of the same or other statute are cited as follows:

   section 411(a)(1)

   section 411(a)(1)(i) of the act of .....

 (c)  Same section. Minor subdivisions in another subsection of the same section are cited without the reference ‘‘of this section’’ as follows:

   subsection (a)(1)(i)(A)(I)

   subsection (a)(1)(i)(A)

   subsection (a)(1)(i)

   subsection (a)(1)

   subsection (a)

 (d)  Same subdivision. Minor subdivisions in the same minor subdivision are cited without the reference to the subdivision common to the unit containing the reference and the unit referred to as follows:

   paragraph (1)

   paragraph (1)(i)

   subparagraph (i)

   paragraph (3)(ii)(A)

   subparagraph (ii)(B)

   clause (B)

   paragraph (3)(ii)(A)(I)

   subparagraph (ii)(B)(I)

   clause (B)(I)

   subclause (I)

§ 15.168. Multiple references.

 References to two or more provisions are cited as follows:

   Chapters 1 and 3 of the act of .....

   Chapters 1 through 3 of the act of .....

   sections 102 and 103 of the act of .....

   sections 306(e) and 307(f)(1)

   subsections (a) and (b)

   paragraph (1) or (2)

   subsection (a)(2), (3) or (4)

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