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231 Pa. Code Rule 1019. Contents of Pleadings. General and Specific Averments.

Rule 1019. Contents of Pleadings. General and Specific Averments.

 (a)  The material facts on which a cause of action or defense is based shall be stated in a concise and summary form.

 (b)  Averments of fraud or mistake shall be averred with particularity. Malice, intent, knowledge, and other conditions of mind may be averred generally.

 (c)  In pleading the performance or occurrence of conditions precedent, it is sufficient to aver generally that all conditions precedent have been performed or have occurred. A denial of such performance or occurrence shall be made specifically and with particularity.

 (d)  In pleading an official document or official act, it is sufficient to identify it by reference and aver that the document was issued or the act done in compliance with law.

 (e)  In pleading a judgment, order or decision of a domestic or foreign court, judicial or administrative tribunal, or board, commission or officer, it is sufficient to aver the judgment, order or decision without setting forth matter showing jurisdiction to render it.

 (f)  Averments of time, place and items of special damage shall be specifically stated.

 (g)  Any part of a pleading may be incorporated by reference in another part of the same pleading or in another pleading in the same action. A party may incorporate by reference any matter of record in any State or Federal court of record whose records are within the county in which the action is pending, or any matter which is recorded or transcribed verbatim in the office of the prothonotary, clerk of any court of record, recorder of deeds or register of wills of such county.

 (h)  When any claim or defense is based upon an agreement, the pleading shall state specifically if the agreement is oral or written.

   Official Note:

   If the agreement is in writing, it must be attached to the pleading. See subdivisioni (i) of this rule.

 (i)  When any claim or defense is based upon a writing, the pleader shall attach a copy of the writing, or the material part thereof, but if the writing or copy is not accessible to the pleader, it is sufficient so to state, together with the reason, and to set forth the substance of the writing.


   The provisions of this Rule 1019 adopted June 25, 1946, effective January 1, 1947; amended April 12, 1999, effective July 1, 1999, 29 Pa.B. 2266; amended November 28, 2000, effective January 1, 2001, 30 Pa.B. 6423. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (255201) to (255202).

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