Rule 608. A Witnesss Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness.
(a) Reputation Evidence. A witnesss credibility may be attacked or supported by testimony about the witnesss reputation for having a character for truthfulness or untruthfulness. But evidence of truthful character is admissible only after the witnesss character for truthfulness has been attacked. Opinion testimony about the witnesss character for truthfulness or untruthfulness is not admissible.
(b) Specific Instances of Conduct. Except as provided in Rule 609 (relating to evidence of conviction of crime),
(1) the character of a witness for truthfulness may not be attacked or supported by cross-examination or extrinsic evidence concerning specific instances of the witness conduct; however,
(2) in the discretion of the court, the credibility of a witness who testifies as to the reputation of another witness for truthfulness or untruthfulness may be attacked by cross-examination concerning specific instances of conduct (not including arrests) of the other witness, if they are probative of truthfulness or untruthfulness; but extrinsic evidence thereof is not admissible.
Pa.R.E. 608(a) differs from F.R.E. 608(a) in that the Federal Rule permits character for truthfulness or untruthfulness to be attacked or supported by testimony about the witnesss reputation or by opinion testimony. Under Pa.R.E. 608(a), opinion testimony is not admissible. This approach is consistent with Pennsylvania law. See Commonwealth v. Lopinson, 427 Pa. 284, 234 A.2d 552 (1967), vacated on other grounds, 392 U.S. 647 (1968). Compare Pa.R.E. 405(a).
Pa.R.E. 608(b)(1) differs from F.R.E. 608(b). Pa.R.E. 608(b)(1) prohibits the use of evidence of specific instances of conduct to support or attack credibility. This is consistent with Pennsylvania law. See Commonwealth v. Cragle, 281 Pa. Super. 434, 422 A.2d 547 (1980). F.R.E. 608(b)(1) prohibits the use of extrinsic evidence for this purpose, but permits cross-examination of a witness about specific instances of conduct reflecting on the witnesss credibility within the courts discretion. Both the Pennsylvania and the Federal Rule refer the issue of attacking a witnesss credibility with evidence of prior convictions to Rule 609.
Pa.R.E. 608(b)(2) is similar to F.R.E. 608(b); it permits a witness who has testified to another witnesss character for truthfulness to be cross-examined, about specific instances of conduct of the principal witness, in the discretion of the court. Pa.R.E. 608(b)(2) makes it clear that although the cross-examination concerns the specific acts of the principal witness, that evidence affects the credibility of the character witness only. This is in accord with Pennsylvania law. See Commonwealth v. Peterkin, 511 Pa. 299, 513 A.2d 373 (1986); Commonwealth v. Adams, 426 Pa. Super. 332, 626 A.2d 1231 (1993). In addition, Pa.R.E. 608(b)(2) excludes the use of arrests; this, too, is consistent with Pennsylvania law. See Commonwealth v. Scott, 496 Pa. 188, 436 A.2d 607 (1981). Because cross-examination concerning specific instances of conduct is subject to abuse, the cross-examination is not automatic; rather, its use is specifically placed in the discretion of the court, and like all other relevant evidence, it is subject to the balancing test of Pa.R.E. 403. Moreover, the court should take care that the cross-examiner has a reasonable basis for the questions asked. See Adams, supra.
Finally, the last paragraph of F.R.E. 608(b), which provides that the giving of testimony by an accused or any other witness is not a waiver of the privilege against self-incrimination when the examination concerns matters relating only to credibility, is not adopted.
Adopted May 8, 1998, effective October 1, 1998; rescinded and replaced January 17, 2013, effective March 18, 2013.
Committee Explanatory Reports:
Final Report explaining the January 17, 2013 rescission and replacement published with the Courts Order at 43 Pa.B. 651 (February 2, 2013).
The provisions of this Rule 608 rescinded and replaced January 17, 2013, effective in sixty days, 43 Pa.B. 620. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276583) to (276584).
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