RULES AND REGULATIONS
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
[22 PA. CODE CH. 4]
Academic Standards and Assessment for Arts and Humanities; Health, Safety and Physical Education; and Family and Consumer Sciences
[33 Pa.B. 255]
The State Board of Education (Board) amends Chapter 4 (relating to academic standards and assessment) to add academic standards for Arts and Humanities; Health, Safety and Physical Education; and Family and Consumer Sciences, to read as set forth in Annex A, under the authority of the Public School Code of 1949 (act) (24 P. S. §§ 1-101--27-2702).
Notice of proposed rulemaking was published at 32 Pa.B. 882 (February 16, 2002) with an invitation to submit written comments.
The final-form rulemaking will add academic standards for the Arts and Humanities; Health, Safety and Physical Education; and Family and Consumer Sciences. The purpose of adding these requirements is to specify academic standards to be achieved by students enrolled at various grade levels in the public schools (including public charter schools) of this Commonwealth.
Comments and Responses
Public comment was received with regard to the proposed changes to the standards, with many requests for technical edits and clarifications. The Senate Education Committee held hearings on March 26, 2002. The House Education Committee held hearings on April 3, 2002. While no official House Education Committee comments were submitted, the Chairperson of the Committee forwarded House staff comments to the Board for consideration. In the Chairperson's letter to the Board included with the comments, the Chairperson noted the need to emphasize, in the standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education, sexual abstinence and avoid sharing drug paraphernalia as means for prevention of diseases such as AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, the House staff raised issues related to the omission of driver safety in the standards. The Independent Regulatory Review Commission (IRRC) provided detailed comments on the final-form rulemaking, largely to clarify and technically correct the proposed standards, as well as suggested improvements of the standards.
Comments concerning the proposed standards were most commonly received in the areas of general comments, clarifying the meaning of individual standards, added and deleted words, definitions and examples, misspellings, punctuation errors and typographical errors, and policy considerations.
Overall Comments and Policy Considerations
There were general comments and policy considerations about all three of the proposed standards as a whole. The House staff suggested that the term ''descriptor'' be removed from all of the proposed standards because it is not a common usage term. This term should remain in the standards since it has become a more widely used term in the field of education. This is due to the fact that educators have added terms such as ''standard category,'' ''standard statement'' and ''standard descriptor'' to their lexicon to communicate with one another regarding the outline of the standards.
Aside from general comments, there was the submission of comments on overall policy considerations. A public commentator indicated that the standards created financial hardships for the districts. Districts are charged with curriculum development. Although the standards may require some realignment and adjustment to the district's planned instruction, most standards concepts have been part of the courses previously taught. Therefore, the impact of the proposed standards in their final form would not create financial hardship for the districts.
There was the concern that there was too much to teach with the new standards, and as a result, educational basics would suffer. There was the issue of whether the standards discouraged local school board control of curriculum and allocation of resources to best meet the needs of their school's population. Educational basics for the 21st century, however, require students to deal with massive amounts of information. Instruction should model how many sources of information can be combined within one topic. Standards need to be taught through an interdisciplinary approach across curriculums. The content areas should be required to teach and instruct the basics within their subject areas. In addition, the standards encourage schools to offer planned instruction through separate courses, separate instructional units within a course or as part of an interdisciplinary practice.
A public commentator questioned whether textbooks are written to comport with the standards. While standards-based textbooks exist, they are often aligned with National standards and the standards of large states. It is anticipated that the Commonwealth's standards will be considered when textbook publishers revise and update their offerings. Therefore, as a result, the districts will have to do a crosswalk to match the textbooks to the standards, and when gaps exist, use handouts, workbooks, videos, library resources, the Internet or other instructional resources.
The same public commentator also addressed whether assessments needed to be changed to align with the standards. Schools continually update and revise their curriculum and local assessment tools. Upon final-form publication of new academic standards, § 4.12 (relating to academic standards) requires that schools will revise their curriculum and align their local assessments. State assessments are neither planned for these standards, nor are they required by the new Federal education requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (Pub.L. 107-110, 115 Stat. 1425) (January 8, 2001).
This public commentator suggested that a review process should be determined now and put into place upon implementation of the standards. Upon the Board's assessment of the review process, the Board determined that procedurally there is the need to focus on completion of the standards adoption process now, and then participate in an overall future review of Chapter 4 in its entirety. This review will take place in 2003.
Arts and Humanities
IRRC provided general comments regarding the proposed standards for Arts and Humanities. In the Table of Contents, IRRC identified various inconsistencies between the Table of Contents and the format of the standards, including: in Standard 9.1, the Table of Contents lists standard statements A--H, but the text contains standard statements A--K; in Standard 9.2, the Table of Contents lists standard statements A--E, but the text of Section 9.2 contains standard statements A--L; in Section 9.3, the Table of Contents lists standard statement A--E, but the text contains standard statements A--G. IRRC recommended that in the final-form rulemaking, the lettering in the Table of Contents should match the lettering in the text of the standards. IRRC also suggested that the identifying title associated with each letter in the Table of Contents should reflect the content of the corresponding standards in the body of the regulation. Both of these suggestions were included in the final-form rulemaking.
Clarifying the Meaning of Individual Standards
In addition to general comments, several changes were recommended by IRRC to make the individual standards for Arts and Humanities more precise and clear. First, Standards 9.1.3.H, 9.1.5.H, 9.1.8.H and 9.1.12.H refer to ''issues of cleanliness related to the arts.'' IRRC indicated that the phrase ''issue of cleanliness'' is vague. IRRC suggested that clarity would be improved if these descriptors were rephrased to specifically identify the activities encompassed by these standards. In response to this suggestion, the phrase ''at work and performance spaces'' was added to each appropriate level of the standards in the final-form rulemaking order to make clear that ''cleanliness'' involves issues of hygiene related to the work spaces in the arts.
Standards 9.1.3.J and 9.1.3.K require students ''Know and use traditional and contemporary technologies.'' Standard statements 9.1.5.J and 9.1.5.K require students to ''Apply traditional and contemporary technologies. . . .'' IRRC indicated that the difference between these standards is unclear, as the phrase ''know and use'' and the term ''apply'' could be interpreted as synonymous. IRRC suggested that examples of the types of skills required in each of these standards would help to clarify the actual intent of these standards.
These examples were not included in the final-form rulemaking, because ''know and use'' and ''apply'' require different levels of knowledge and skill, and therefore the terms are not synonymous and the suggested examples are not necessary. Application of ''know and use'' allows students to identify the traditional and contemporary technologies at the lowest appropriate level (such as, know and use a keyboard). At the third grade level ''know and use'' is the introduction, without application, to creative production. The fifth grade level is the application of ''know and use'' to practice and exploration through the creation of works in the art works (such as art, music, dance and theatre). Examples are listed at each grade level. At the third grade level, students can ''know and use'' any of the examples listed under traditional and contemporary technologies. For example, third graders can ''know and use'' charcoal as it is a traditional technology, and they also can ''know and use'' a CD-ROM as it is a contemporary technology.
''Apply'' means a student may use the technologies to create a work in the arts (such as, apply the use of the keyboarding skills to the creating of a work in the arts). By the fifth grade level, students can ''apply'' additional skills to traditional wooden tools used in ceramics. They can apply and work with multi-media to interface with CD-ROMs. Like application of ''know and use,'' each of these levels of ''apply'' has examples of both traditional and contemporary technologies.
Standards 9.3.3.A and 9.3.3.E require third graders to ''Recognize critical processes used in the examination of works in the arts and humanities'' and ''Recognize and identify types of critical analyses in the arts and humanities.'' IRRC agreed with the House staff that these requirements are inappropriate, as these standards are higher-level processes and would be difficult for kindergarten through third grade students to achieve. IRRC suggested, therefore, that the inclusion of these standards at the third grade level be reexamined. The House staff also questioned the age appropriateness of Standard 9.4.3.A, which requires third graders ''Know how to respond to a philosophical statement about works in the arts and humanities. . . .'' The House staff suggested that this standard needs clarification.
The standards remain at the third grade level, as they were concepts supported by research. According to National research of critical response, students at this age can make judgments about art, music, dance and theatre. Based upon documented evidence, this critical process is appropriate and very similar to that already used in the sciences.
Standard 9.4.5.B requires fifth grade students ''Investigate and communicate multiple philosophical views about works in the arts.'' The House staff suggested, and IRRC agreed, that this standard is confusing and should be reworded to clarify its intent. Both the House staff and IRRC also suggested clarification of the phrase ''multiple philosophical views.''
''Multiple philosophical views'' allow more than one specific interpretation of works in the arts. For example, individuals and children can have more than one philosophical view of a work in the arts; one child may like a work of art, while another may not like the images. This is philosophy at its lowest level. Currently, the Department is developing an online course for generalist and arts educators to provide them with a basic understanding of aesthetics. Four levels have been internationally researched and are identified, used and practiced throughout the course. These four levels of aesthetics include: internalize, personalize, extend and transcend. For example, a viewer may see a movie and like it; another sees it and feels that it follows the book (internalize), while another may think that the movie does not follow the book and does not like the actor interpreting the male lead (personalize); another person may feel the movie is great since it helps them connect to the person's heritage. The third level is when the person sees a movie, personalizes the ideas, thinks about them, and expands the idea to other thoughts and beliefs. The highest level is to transcend thoughts in order to create or behave differently. It is anticipated that these concepts will encompass the requirements of Standard 9.4.5.B, and therefore this standard was not reworded in the final-form rulemaking.
Added and Deleted Words, Definitions and Examples
There were various suggestions that definitions be added or deleted from the Glossary. The glossary of terms used in the standards for the Arts and Humanities has been identified in the document, so that educators, community resources (State art museums, artists, and the like) and parents use the same vocabulary when having a discussion in their school district. The committee forthese standards used terms that were developed based on National standards, and sometimes more specifically applied to standards used in this Commonwealth.
Standard 9.1 lists the elements and principles of art forms that are included in the proposed standards. IRRC agreed with the suggestion of the House staff, and recommended that ''style'' should be added to the list of principles related to music. IRRC noted that ''style'' is included as a principle for dance and music. ''Style'' was not added to the list of principles related to music in Standard 9.1.3.A, because its inclusion as a principle is inconsistent with the National Standards for Music. These National standards indicate that style is not considered to be an element or principle. ''Style'' is listed in the National standards and is used as ''how (distinctive or characteristic manner) the elements and principles are treated.''
Furthermore, ''style'' is included in Standard 9.2.3.C when students are required to ''Relate works in the arts to varying styles and genre to the periods in which they were created. . . .'' Students can study ''style'' in all of the art forms when they hear or see, or both, a work of art in relation to both historical and cultural contexts. Therefore, style was not added as a principle for dance and music in the final-form rulemaking. (It should be noted that all of the National standards for the arts were used to develop these standards, and dance and theatre teachers of this Commonwealth were very active on the committee to develop these standards, and agreed with the use and interpretation of the terms in the standards that are related to their field.)
In addition, at the request of the House staff, a definition for ''multi-media'' was added to the Glossary, as the term was used in Standard 9.1.B.
At the suggestion of IRRC, the following terms were deleted from the Glossary in the final-form rulemaking, as these terms were not used in the standards: ''arts criticism;'' ''arts integration;'' ''formal production/exhibition;'' ''repertoire;'' and ''synthesis.'' ''Arts resource'' was not deleted, at the suggestion of IRRC, because it is used in Standard 9.1.12. (See Standard 9.1.12.A). In addition, the term ''aesthetic response'' was added to the Glossary. IRRC requested that the term ''assess'' be removed from the Glossary, and that the term ''assessment'' be added to the Glossary. ''Assess'' was included, as opposed to ''assessment,'' because the word ''assess'' was used in the standards.
Health, Safety and Physical Education
IRRC indicated overall concerns with the age appropriateness of various portions of the proposed standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education. For example, IRRC questioned whether the content of Standard 10.5.3.B was appropriate for third graders, and whether the content of Standard 10.5.6.B was appropriate for sixth graders. IRRC suggested that the Board reexamine inclusion of these standards at the third and sixth grade levels. The House staff agreed, and further indicated that Standards 10.5.3.B, D, E and 10.5.6.B, D and E appear to be highly analytical and would be difficult for all third grade and all sixth grade children to achieve. Therefore, the House staff suggested that clarifying language or examples be used or that those standards, as written, be deleted.
These standards, in their current forms, are appropriate at both levels. The age designation of these concepts is based on National research and the verbs used therein reflect Bloom's taxonomy. Furthermore, the teachers who participated in writing these standards are experts at these grade levels and have experience implementing these concepts at the levels designated. These teachers ensure that the students can be expected to ''describe,'' ''use'' and ''apply'' the cognitive information in an age appropriate manner.
Furthermore, the standard statements were written to support both cognitive and psychomotor development. Children currently are introduced to these concepts but have not been provided with the appropriate terminology. In the past, these concepts have been taught through incidental rather than intentional teaching. Based on the proposed standards, children will now be provided with the appropriate terminology through intentional teaching.
The use of proper terminology supports the integration of subject learning across the disciplines. The language used within the standard statements encourages physical education teachers to intentionally teach the concepts with an interdisciplinary focus. By utilizing the correct terminology, the physical education standards can support other disciplines as well as other disciplines supporting physical education. The local school district physical education teachers select the specific skill or activity that best demonstrates the specific concept that should be taught. Explanations of the terminology used are provided in the glossary.
Standard 10.5.3.E requires students ''Know and describe scientific principles that affect movement. . . .'' This standard lists gravity as an example of a scientific principle. IRRC questioned whether this standard is too advanced for the third grade level, as in the Board's existing science standards; the concept of gravity is not addressed until the seventh grade. IRRC suggested that the Board reconsider inclusion of this standard at the third grade level.
Standard 10.5.6.E requires students to ''Identify and use scientific principles that affect basic movement. . . .'' This standard lists Newton's Laws of Motion as one of the scientific principles. IRRC questioned whether this standard is too advanced for the sixth grade level, as Newton's Laws are not addressed in the Board's existing science standards until the tenth grade in Standard 3.4.10.C. IRRC suggested that the Board should reconsider inclusion of this standard at the sixth grade level.
The Health, Safety and Physical Education standards and the Science and Technology standards align with respect to content and student expectations. The science standards have been written in a descriptive format while the standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education reinforce the use of proper terminology. Science Standards 3.4.4.C and 3.4.7.C align with the Standards 10.5.3.E and 10.5.6.E. Both of these standards address the issues of force and motion. Science Standard 3.4.4.C indicates that students at this level should ''recognize forces that attract or repel other objects and demonstrate them.'' One type of force that applies to this standard is gravity, which is listed as a scientific principle that affects movement in Standard 10.5.3.E. While the specific term ''gravity'' is not used until later in the science standards, the concept of gravity is introduced by grade 4. In Standard 3.4.4.C, students at this level should ''describe various types of motion.'' Standard 10.5.3.E identifies rotation, which is one type of motion. Standard 3.4.4.C requires students to ''compare the relative movements of objects and describe types of motion that are evident.'' Standard 10.5.3.C identifies the concept of ''force production/force absorption.'' These are factors that affect both movement and the resultant movement.
The same type of correlation can be made between Standard 3.4.7.C and Standard 10.5.6.E. Standard 3.4.7.C requires the student to ''identify and explain the principles of force and motion'' and ''describe the motion of an object based on its position, direction and speed.'' This information comprises Newton's Laws of Motion that are identified in Standard 10.5.6.E. While the specific term ''Newton's Laws of Motion'' is not used until later in the science standards, the concept of Newton's Laws is introduced by grade 7.
Therefore, upon review, the Board determined that both of these standards were appropriate at the respective grade levels, and both standards remained in the final-form rulemaking.
Clarifying the Meaning of Individual Standards
A public commentator addressed that Standard 10.1.6.B requires that sixth grade students are taught to identify and describe the structure and function of the reproductive system, and Standard 10.1.6.E requires students to learn about sexually transmitted diseases. This public commentator questioned whether parents would object to these topics being taught at that grade level, and whether parents would object to the topics being taught in a mixed group of boys and girls. Statistics demonstrate that as of fifth grade, students need to be aware of both the structure and function of the reproductive system, as well as of sexually transmitted diseases, due to the occurrence of pregnancy at very young ages. As a result, students must be properly educated on these topics for their own self-protection.
This same public commentator suggested that parents should be informed that their children are being taught these subjects and be permitted to review the instructional materials. Parents also should have the option of allowing their children to be instructed on these subjects outside the classroom. These options exist at present. Section 4.4(d)(1) and (3) provides that: ''[s]chool districts . . . shall adopt policies to assure that parents or guardians have. . .access to information about the curriculum, including academic standards to be achieved, instructional materials . . . the right to have their children excused from specific instruction which conflicts with their religious beliefs. . . .'' Furthermore, the standards are not only written for teachers to plan their instruction, but also to aid parents in the education of their children. As a result, parents have access to the actual standards as they are provided on the Department's website.
With respect to the concept of the family, this public commentator also recommended that the standards should be written to address the importance of marriage as an institution. It is not the purpose of the standards to discuss personal relationships or establish a value system, in order to ensure that no lifestyle judgments should ever be made or encouraged in the classroom.
In Standards 10.1.6.E and 10.1.9.E, the House staff suggested that the use of ''sexual abstinence'' as a separate bullet (not simply as an example) should be included in the standards on prevention of STD/HIV/AIDS and personal choice in disease prevention, as current regulations emphasize that abstinence is the only ''reliable way'' to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). See § 4.29(b) (relating to HIV/AIDS and other life-threatening and communicable diseases). The House staff further indicated that abstinence as well should be emphasized in these standards in this manner. IRRC agreed with a concern addressed by a public commentator regarding Standard 10.1. In this standard, education on sexually transmitted diseases is included in the sixth grade in Standard 10.1.6.E, but abstinence is not addressed until ninth grade in Standard 10.1.9.A. IRRC agreed that this apparent inconsistency is confusing.
Standard 10.1.6.E requires students ''Identify and describe health problems that can occur throughout life.'' According to IRRC, it would appear that classroom discussion of any disease would logically include dialogue on how a disease is contracted and how it can be prevented. Therefore, IRRC suggested that the Board should consider including disease prevention in both the 6th and the 9th grade standards.
To reinforce the concept and to make the introduction of abstinence consistent, Standard 10.1.6.E was revised to read as follows: ''Identify health problems that can occur throughout life and describe ways to prevent them. Diseases (such as cancer, diabetes, STD/HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular disease). Preventions (that is do not smoke, maintain proper weight, eat a balanced diet, practice sexual abstinence, be physically active).'' According to this standard, to practice sexual abstinence is an ''i.e.'' which, therefore, means that this prevention is mandated and must be taught by grade 6. It also must be noted that the standard statements (the statements with letters) are intertwined, and can be taught simultaneously. However, the information within the grade levels is written so that grade 3 information is a precursor to grade 6 information, and the like. The standards statements are to be integrated and should not be taught in isolation of the other standard statements.
Stressing abstinence from sexual activity was an extremely important focal point within the standards committee. Section 4.29 states: ''[P]rograms discussing transmission [of disease] through sexual activity shall stress that abstinence from sexual activity is the only reliable means of preventing sexual transmission [of disease].'' See § 4.29(b). Section 4.29 should remain in the curriculum regulations to emphasize the importance of abstinence. The listing of abstinence as a bullet, in addition to the content of § 4.29, will reinforce the importance of abstinence.
Standard 10.2.9.D states: ''Analyze and apply a decisionmaking process to adolescent health and safety issues.'' The House staff suggested that the example of teenage sexual abstinence should be included in this standard. Understanding the decisionmaking process and possessing the ability to apply the process is a foundation of health education and the development of a health literate individual. This process is critical to every topic that is discussed in health education. Since this process is critical to all areas of health, the standards committee determined that no bullets should be provided. By not listing specific bullets, the standard would emphasize the importance of the decisionmaking process for all areas.
Added and Deleted Words, Definitions and Examples
The other issue raised regarding the proposed standards was driver's safety education. In Standard 10.3, the House staff suggested the inclusion of driver's safety education. The House staff indicated to specifically include vehicle safety, traffic safety and basic driving skillsto Standards 10.3.9. and 10.3.12. In addition, IRRC considered the recommendations of a public commentator, who also suggested the expansion of proposed Standard 10.3 to include driver's education. IRRC indicated that it is reasonable to assume that most students will drive during their lifetime. Given the statistical significance of teenage motor vehicle accidents and fatalities, IRRC suggested that a standard should be included for classroom instruction of driver's safety education.
The standards recognize the importance of driver education. Safety education begins in grade 3 and progresses through grade 12. In Standard 10.3.3.A, modes of transportation are addressed. Children learn about following rules, wearing seatbelts and safety practices involved in different modes of transportation. By grade 9, Standard 10.3.9 requires that the students ''Analyze the role of individual responsibility for safe practices and injury prevention in the home, school and community.'' Modes of transportation are once again discussed, including vehicular, passenger and all-terrain vehicles. By grade 12, Standard 10.3.12.A requires that students ''Assess the personal and legal consequences of unsafe practices in the home, school, or community.'' Discussion involves personal injury, impact on others, loss of motor vehicle operator's license, and the like. Every bullet listed in these standards encourages driver safety education. Therefore, the Board felt that the issue of driver safety education had been sufficiently addressed by the proposed standards. Furthermore, driver education is not currently mandated in Chapter 4; therefore, these particular standards cannot mandate the teaching of basic driving skills.
Aside from the issue of driver education, other additions were suggested. Standard 10.2.3.A refers to ''community helpers.'' IRRC suggested that for clarity, this term be defined in the Glossary and a definition was included in the final-form rulemaking.
In the Glossary, the term ''biomechanics'' was changed to ''biomechanical principles,'' at the suggestion of IRRC, for consistency with its usage in Standard 10.5.12.E. IRRC recommended that the term ''cardiorespiratory fitness'' be added to the Glossary. To be consistent with the standards, the term ''cardiorespiratory fitness,'' therefore, was added to the Glossary.
The term ''refusal strategies'' was removed from the Glossary and replaced with ''refusal skills,'' to be consistent with Standard 10.3.3.C. While IRRC suggested that the term ''multi-media'' be added to the Glossary, the term ''media sources'' was added to the Glossary because this term is used in Standard 10.2.3.C.
Family and Consumer Sciences
IRRC noted that a public commentator encouraged the need to include insurance concepts in the proposed standards (by way of its inclusion in either Appendix C or D). IRRC agreed when this public commentator indicated that every student will eventually be faced with purchasing an insurance policy of some type, such as car insurance, health insurance or renter's or homeowner's insurance. IRRC stated, therefore, that it would be reasonable to include basic insurance concepts in the standards, in particular in Standard 11.1. While the standards do not include an actual definition of insurance, the final-form rulemaking includes ''insurance'' as an example used in Standard 11.1.9.B: ''Explain the responsibilities associated with managing personal fi-nances (such as savings, checking, credit, noncash systems, investments, insurance).'' Through application of this standard, teachers should develop and provide their students with a basic understanding of insurance concepts.
Clarifying the Meaning of Individual Standards
The House staff questioned the age appropriateness for Standard 11.1.3.F. The House staff was concerned that all third grade students might be instructed in the criteria for evaluating goods and services, but there was the question of whether they would be able to apply those criteria. The areas listed, however, have elementary level teaching resources. The purpose of these standards is to help students realize that they are making a decision when they exchange money for a product or services. Furthermore, these elementary level teaching resources indicate that the relevant age and grade levels applied to this particular standard can understand this concept. The House staff also suggested clarification for the use of ''sound'' in classifying foods in Standard 11.3.3.G. In the area of weight management, one of the newer practices is to use foods with a loud crunch, as these sounds are more satisfying (that is ''celery'').
Added and Deleted Words, Definitions and Examples
At the suggestion of IRRC, the final-form rulemaking resolved the inconsistency of the definition of ''child development stage'' in the Glossary and the appropriate stages listed in Standard 11.4.3.A were included in the definition. Age ranges were added to correspond to stages of child development in Standard 11.4.3.A. The job of a glossary is to clearly communicate the intent of the standard. An individual looking for the stages of child development would begin with the term ''child development.'' While it is true that the two terms are almost interchangeable, ''child development stage'' was maintained for the convenience of the reader. As a result, the definition ''child development stage'' remained in the Glossary, as opposed to ''stages of child development.''
A typographical error also was changed in Standard 11.4.6.A. The inconsistency between the Glossary term ''child-care provider considerations'' and the use of ''consideration prior to selecting child care providers'' in Standard 11.4.6.D also was addressed and resolved in the final-form rulemaking, as Standard 11.4.6.D was amended to read: ''Identify child-care provider considerations.''
The final-form rulemaking affects the students and professional employees of the public schools of this Commonwealth (including intermediate units, area vocational-technical schools, public charter and alternative schools).
Costs and Paperwork Estimates
The Department believes implementation of this final-form rulemaking will be cost neutral to school districts. Costs to implement this final-form rulemaking may include curriculum development and the professional development of teachers. However, these costs may be cost neutral, as they have already been included in the budget. For example, curriculum revision is an ongoing activity for schools and is typically part of their normal budgeting. Costs associated with aligning curricula with these standards at the local level will be minimized by the following state efforts: technical assistance in curriculum development provided by Department staff; imple-mentation materials developed by the Department; training provided by intermediate units and professional associations to public schools. Professional development of teachers is an ongoing activity for schools and is addressed in the normal budgeting process by school districts. Specific programs designed to support the implementation of these standards will minimize any financial impact on school districts. Current year funds available for the Department to support these activities total $4.38 million. These funds are available for implementation of both Appendix D, and other academic standards, by way of professional development.
This final-form rulemaking will become effective upon final publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin.
The effectiveness of Chapter 4 will be reviewed by the Board every 4 years, in accordance with the Board's policy and practice respecting all regulations promulgated by the Board. The Board plans to initiate its review of Chapter 4 in 2003. Thus, no sunset date is necessary.
Under section 5(a) of the Regulatory Review Act (71 P. S. § 745.5(a)), on January 31, 2002, the Board submitted a copy of the proposed rulemaking published at 32 Pa.B. 882, to IRRC and to the Chairpersons of the House and Senate Committees on Education for review and comment.
In compliance with section 5(c) of the Regulatory Review Act, the Board also provided IRRC and the Committees with copies of the comments received as well as other documentation. In preparing the final-form rulemaking, the Board considered the comments received from IRRC, the Committees and the public.
Under section 5.1(d) of the Regulatory Review Act (71 P. S. § 745.5a(d)), the final-form rulemaking was deemed approved by the Senate and House Committees on November 8, 2002. IRRC met on November 21, 2002, and approved the final-form rulemaking in accordance with section 5.1(e) of the Regulatory Review Act.
The official responsible for information on the final-form rulemaking is James E. Buckheit, Acting Executive Director, State Board of Education, 333 Market Street, Harrisburg, PA 17126-0333, (717) 787-3787 or TDD (717) 787-7367.
The Department finds that:
(1) Public notice of the intention to adopt this final-form rulemaking was given under sections 201 and 202 of the act of July 31, 1968 (P. L. 769, No. 240) (45 P. S. §§ 1201 and 1202) and the regulations promulgated thereunder in 1 Pa. Code §§ 7.1 and 7.2.
(2) A public comment period was provided as required by law and all comments were considered.
(3) The final-form rulemaking is necessary and appropriate for the administration of the act.
The Board, acting under the authorizing statute, orders that:
(a) The regulations of the Board, 22 Pa. Code Chapter 4, are amended by adding Appendix D to read as set forth in Annex A.
(b) The Acting Executive Director will submit this order and Annex A to the Office of General Counsel and the Office of Attorney General for review and approval as to legality and form as required by law.
(c) The Acting Executive Director of the Board shall certify this order and Annex A and deposit them with the Legislative Reference Bureau as required by law.
(d) This order is effective upon final publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin.
JAMES E. BUCKHEIT,
Acting Executive Director
(Editor's Note: For the text of the order of the Independent Regulatory Review Commission, relating to this document, see 32 Pa.B. 6016 (December 7, 2002).)
Fiscal Note: 6-276. (1) General Fund; (2) Implementing Year 2002-03 is $*; (3) 1st Succeeding Year 2003-04 is $; 2nd Succeeding Year 2004-05 is $; 3rd Succeeding Year 2005-06 is $; 4th Succeeding Year 2006-07 is $; 5th Succeeding Year 2007-08 is $; (4) 2001-02 Program--$3.67 million; 2000-01 Program--$3.95 million; 1999-00 Program--$1.92 million; (7) For teacher professional development associated with new academic standards, etc.; (8) recommends adoption.
TITLE 22. EDUCATION
PART I. STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
CHAPTER 4. ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR ASSESSMENT
Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities and Health, Safety and Physical Education and Family and Consumer Sciences
XXV. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction . . . . . XXVI.
THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS
Production, Performance and Exhibition of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts . . . . . 9.1.
A. Elements and Principles in each Art Form
B. Demonstration of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts
C. Vocabulary within each Art Form
D. Styles in Production, Performance and Exhibition
E. Themes in Art Forms
F. Historical and Cultural Production, Performance and Exhibition
G. Function and Analysis of Rehearsals and Practice Sessions
H. Safety Issues in the Arts
I. Community Performances and Exhibitions
J. Technologies in the Arts
K. Technologies in the Humanities
Historical and Cultural Contexts . . . . . 9.2.
A. Context of Works in the Arts
B. Chronology of Works in the Arts
C. Styles and Genre in the Arts
D. Historical and Cultural Perspectives
E. Historical and Cultural Impact on Works in the Arts
F. Vocabulary for Historical and Cultural Context
G. Geographic Regions in the Arts
H. Pennsylvania Artists
I. Philosophical Context of Works in the Arts
J. Historical Differences of Works in the Arts
K. Traditions Within Works in the Arts
L. Common Themes in Works in the Arts
Critical Response . . . . . 9.3.
A. Critical Processes
D. Vocabulary for Criticism
E. Types of Analysis
G. Critics in the Arts
Aesthetic Response . . . . . 9.4.
A. Philosophical Studies
B. Aesthetic Interpretation
C. Environmental Influences
D. Artistic Choices
Glossary . . . . . XXVII.
The Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities describe what students should know and be able to do at the end of grades 3, 5, 8 and 12 in the visual and performing arts and the understanding about humanities context within the arts. The arts include dance, music, theatre and visual arts. The arts and the humanities are interconnected through the inclusion of history, criticism and aesthetics. In addition, the humanities include literature and language, philosophy, social studies and world languages. The areas encompassed in the humanities such as jurisprudence, comparative religions and ethics are included among other standards documents. The interconnected arts and humanities areas are divided into these standards categories:
* 9.1. Production, Performance and Exhibition of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts
* 9.2. Historical and Cultural Contexts
* 9.3. Critical Response
* 9.4. Aesthetic Response
The Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities define the content for planned instruction that will result in measurable gains for all students in knowledge and skills and provide a basis of learning for continued study in the arts. The unifying themes of production, history, criticism and aesthetics are common to each area of study within the Academic Standards in the Arts and Humanities.
* Dance Education is a kinesthetic art form that satisfies the human need to respond to life experiences through movement of the physical being.
* Music Education is an aural art form that satisfies the human need to respond to life experiences through singing, listening and/or playing an instrument.
* Theatre Education is an interdisciplinary art form that satisfies the human need to express thoughts and feelings through written text, dramatic interpretation and multimedia production.
* Visual Arts Education is a spatial art form that satisfies the human need to respond to life experiences through images, structures and tactile works.
* Humanities Education is the understanding and integration of human thought and accomplishment.
Knowledge of the Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities incorporates carefully developed and integrated components:
* Application of problem solving skills
* Extensive practice in the comprehension of basic symbol systems and abstract concepts
* Application of technical skills in practical production and performance
* Comprehension and application of the creative process
* Development and practice of creative thinking skills
* Development of verbal and nonverbal communication skills
These standards provide the targets essential for success in student learning in arts and humanities. They describe the expectations for students' achievement and performance throughout their education in Pennsylvania schools. Utilizing these standards, school entities can develop a local school curriculum that will meet their students' needs.
The arts represent society's capacity to integrate human experience with individual creativity. Comprehensive study of the arts provides an opportunity for all students to observe, reflect and participate both in the arts of their culture and the cultures of others. Sequential study in the arts and humanities provides the knowledge and the analytical skills necessary to evaluate and critique a media-saturated culture. An arts education contributes to the development of productive citizens who have gained creative and technological knowledge necessary for employment in the 21st Century.
A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.
No part of the information on this site may be reproduced for profit or sold for profit.
This material has been drawn directly from the official Pennsylvania Bulletin full text database. Due to the limitations of HTML or differences in display capabilities of different browsers, this version may differ slightly from the official printed version.