RULES AND REGULATIONS
Title 17—CONSERVATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND
[ 17 PA. CODE CH. 45 ]
Conservation of Pennsylvania Native Wild Plants
[48 Pa.B. 7757]
[Saturday, December 22, 2018]
The Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (Department) amends Chapter 45 (relating to conservation of Pennsylvania native wild plants) to read as set forth in Annex A.
A. Effective Date
This final-form rulemaking will go into effect upon final-form publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin.
B. Contact Persons
The primary contact for questions regarding this final-form rulemaking is Rebecca H. Bowen, Chief, Ecological Services, Bureau of Forestry, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 8552, Harrisburg, PA 17105-8552, (717) 787-3444, email@example.com. The secondary contact for questions regarding this final-form rulemaking is Stephen Ekema-Agbaw, Assistant Counsel, Office of Chief Counsel, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 8767, Harrisburg, PA 17105, (717) 772-4171, firstname.lastname@example.org.
C. Statutory Authority
This final-form rulemaking is authorized under section 7 of the Wild Resource Conservation Act (WRCA) (32 P.S. § 5307) and sections 305(a)(9) and 313(g) of the Conservation and Natural Resources Act (CNRA) (71 P.S. §§ 1340.305(a)(9) and 1340.313(g)).
Section 7(a) of the WRCA provides that ''the [former] Department of Environmental Resources shall. . .conduct investigations on wild plants in order to ascertain information relating to. . .other biological and ecological data to classify plants and to determine management measures necessary for their continued ability to sustain themselves successfully.'' Under section 7(c) of the WRCA, ''[o]n the basis of such determinations, the Environmental Quality Board shall issue regulations not later than 2 years from the effective date of'' the WRCA. Under section 7(c) of the WRCA, ''[t]he Environmental Quality Board may add or delete species as conditions change and may modify regulations to reflect the changing environment.''
Section 305(a)(9) of the CNRA transferred to the Department ''the powers and duties vested in the Department of Environmental Resources by the. . .Wild Resource Conservation Act.'' The former Department of Environmental Resources was the Department's predecessor in this interest. Section 313(g) of the CNRA transferred to the Department ''the powers and duties previously vested the Environmental Quality Board by. . .[s]ections 7, 8 and 9'' of the WRCA.
D. Purpose and Background
This final-form rulemaking amends Chapter 45 by updating: 1) the classification lists of native wild plants; 2) the scientific and common names of certain native wild plants; and 3) the reference source that the Department uses for the names of native wild plants.
Regarding updates to the classification lists of native wild plants, this final-form rulemaking amends the following classification lists: Pennsylvania Extirpated (§ 45.11); Pennsylvania Endangered (§ 45.12); Pennsylvania Threatened (§ 45.13); Pennsylvania Rare (§ 45.14); and Tentatively Undetermined (§ 45.21).
This final-form rulemaking amends the classification lists by: 1) adding plants that are currently unclassified to a classification list; 2) reclassifying plants already on a classification list to a new classification; and 3) removing plants from the classification lists altogether (declassifying them).
Process of classifying native wild plants in this Commonwealth
Native wild plant species are those plant species that existed in this Commonwealth prior to European settlement. There are approximately 2,800 native wild plant species that currently exist or formerly existed in this Commonwealth. The Department classifies approximately 1/5 of these species because they are a conservation concern; the other 4/5 are considered secure and thus not classified.
The Department begins the process of classifying native wild plants by collecting and analyzing data on native wild plant species in this Commonwealth. The Department uses the following data to make its classification decisions: numbers of populations known in this Commonwealth; number of individuals within populations; the plant's range (amount of ground that it covers); threats such as pests, invasive species and habitat loss; decrease or increase in population numbers; and taxonomic information. The previous list is not exhaustive. The Department analyzes this data to determine the population, distribution, habitat needs, limiting factors, and other biological and ecological information about each plant species.
An important piece of data that the Department uses to make classification decisions are referred to as ''State ranks.'' In this Commonwealth, each plant species receives a State rank from the Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program (PNHP). The PNHP assigns these ranks based on a methodology created by Nature Serve, an international network of natural heritage programs. The purpose of Nature Serve's methodology is to bring consistency to the biodiversity conservation efforts of individuals and organizations throughout the Western Hemisphere. This methodology is used across North America, Central America and South America. By using this standard tool, the Department ensures its evaluation methods are, at a minimum, equivalent to that of other states and countries in the Western Hemisphere and that its classification decisions are based on sound science.
Throughout this process the Department also receives data, information and recommendations from the Pennsylvania Biological Survey's Vascular Plant Technical Committee (Committee). The Committee is composed of professional botanists working throughout this Commonwealth in academic, consulting, governmental and conservation organizations. Each year, the Committee makes classification recommendations for native wild plants based on the research and expertise of its professional botanists.
The Department assimilates and reviews all data and recommendations it collects and receives, and determines the appropriate classifications for each native wild plant species under the definitions in Chapter 45.
Native wild plant classifications
Under section 7(a) of the WRCA, how plants are classified determines the ''management measures necessary for their continued ability to sustain themselves successfully.'' Native wild plant species that are at risk of extinction in this Commonwealth need greater protection than those less susceptible to this risk. Chapter 45 designates the level of risk facing native wild plant species in this Commonwealth by classifying them as follows:
Pennsylvania Extirpated (§ 45.11)—A classification of plant species believed to be extinct in this Commonwealth. If a plant species classified as Pennsylvania Extirpated is later found to exist in this Commonwealth it will automatically be considered classified as Pennsylvania Endangered.
Pennsylvania Endangered (§ 45.12)—A classification of plant species that are in danger of extinction throughout most or all of their natural range in this Commonwealth if critical habitat is not maintained or if the species is greatly exploited by man. This classification also includes populations of plant species that have been classified as Pennsylvania Extirpated but are subsequently found to exist in this Commonwealth.
Pennsylvania Threatened (§ 45.13)—A classification of plant species that may become endangered throughout most or all of their natural range in this Commonwealth if critical habitat is not maintained to prevent their further decline, or if the species is greatly exploited by man.
Pennsylvania Rare (§ 45.14)—A classification of plant species that are uncommon in this Commonwealth because they have low population numbers or are only found in restricted geographic areas.
Pennsylvania Vulnerable (§ 45.15)—A classification of plant species that are in danger of population decline in this Commonwealth because of their beauty, economic value, use as a cultivar or other factors which indicate that persons may seek to remove these species from their native habitats.
Special Concern Population (§ 45.20)—A classification of plant species that the Department has determined to be a unique occurrence deserving protection. Among the factors used to classify a plant species as a Special Concern Population are the existence of unusual geographic locations, unisexual populations or extraordinarily diverse plant populations.
Tentatively Undetermined (§ 45.21)—A classification of plant species that are in danger of population decline but do not meet the criteria for any other classification due to taxonomic uncertainties, limited historical records or insufficient data.
Updating species nomenclature
This final-form rulemaking updates the scientific and common names of certain native wild plant species to conform to the Department's new taxonomic source material.
The current nomenclature used to identify species taxonomy in Chapter 45 comes from John T. Kartesz's 1980 publication, A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland, Volume 2: The Biota of North America. The Department now uses The Plants of Pennsylvania Second Edition (2007) by Ann Fowler Rhoads and Timothy A. Block as a reference. This final-form rulemaking updates the reference to reflect the most up-to-date information on native wild plants in this Commonwealth. This necessitates an update to the scientific and common names in Chapter 45 to remain consistent with the new source material. Additionally, this rulemaking corrects minor grammatical errors and misspellings of species names.
Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory
The amendments will be incorporated into the Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory (PNDI).
The PNDI is a database that maintains the Department's list of native wild plant classifications, as well as native rare wildlife classifications from the Game Commission, the Fish and Boat Commission and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The PNDI provides the most current, reliable and objective scientific information about ecological resources in this Commonwealth and it is used to help inform environmental decisions in the Commonwealth. Most notably, the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) uses the PNDI to inform its environmental permitting decisions.
The overwhelming majority of users use the PNDI as part of the process of obtaining a DEP permit. The DEP requires permit applicants to screen their land use projects through the PNDI for potential impacts to threatened or endangered species to receive a DEP permit; threatened and endangered plant species are thereby protected by the DEP's permitting process.
Although this final-form rulemaking will result in updates to the plant data in the PNDI, this final-form rulemaking will not affect the DEP's permitting process. The process of obtaining a DEP permit is beyond the scope of this final-form rulemaking. Instead, the PNDI's connection to this final-form rulemaking is limited to its use of the plant data that will result from the amendments. No person, business, small business or organization will be required to invest in additional administrative procedures as a direct result of this final-form rulemaking.
Finally, because this final-form rulemaking will remove more species from classifications than it adds, there may be fewer classified plant species for prospective DEP permit applicants to account for when applying to obtain DEP permits. Depending on the project type, location and classified plant species in question, prospective DEP permit applicants may see no change in the amount of mitigation required to address impacts to threatened and endangered species and fulfil permit requirements.
E. Response to Comments
The Department published notice of the proposed rulemaking at 47 Pa.B. 7210 (November 25, 2017), with a 30-day public comment period. The Department received 14 comments from the public, two of which were substantively identical. The Department did not receive any comments from the Independent Regulatory Review Commission (IRRC) or the Senate and House Environmental Resources and Energy Committees.
The public comments were overwhelmingly positive and praised the Department for updating Pennsylvania's native wild plant classifications. Commenters were generally concerned with ensuring that this Commonwealth's most vulnerable plants were properly identified for protection. Additionally, commenters commended the Department for relying on the most current scientific data in classifying the plants in this final-form rulemaking.
The Department addressed the comments from the public in a comment and response document. To obtain a copy of this document contact Rebecca Bowen by the contact information provided in section B.
F. Summary of this Final-Form Rulemaking and Changes from Proposed to Final-Form Rulemaking
Subchapter A. General provisions
The definition of ''unlisted'' will be deleted from § 45.2 (relating to definitions) because it is not used in Chapter 45.
Amendments to § 45.3 (relating to classified plant taxonomy) update the taxonomic source material that the Department uses for the nomenclature of native wild plants from John T. Kartesz and Rosemarie Kartesz, A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland, Volume 2: The Biota of North America (1980), to Ann Fowler Rhoads and Timothy A. Block, The Plants of Pennsylvania An Illustrated Manual Second Edition (2007), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Subchapter B. Classified plants
There are 130 substantive amendments to Subchapter B (relating to classified plants), with 79 name changes and 51 classification changes. The substantive amendments include: 9 currently unclassified plant species to be newly classified; 11 currently classified plant species to be reclassified; 31 currently classified plant species to be unclassified; and 79 currently classified plant species with name changes.
For the purposes of this final-form rulemaking, a substantive name change is one that changes the meaning of the plant name (see the following ''plant name changes'' section). This final-form rulemaking makes minor grammatical corrections to plant names (that is, adding periods, deleting commas and fixing spelling errors) that do not change the meaning of the plant name and are therefore not substantive.
Changes from Proposed to Final-Form Rulemaking
The Department did not make any changes to the Annex from the proposed to this final-form rulemaking. The Department received overwhelming public support for this rulemaking during the public comment period.
Newly classified and reclassified plant species
Scientific Name Common Name Current Final Reason for Change Habitat/Identification Window Asclepias variegata L. White Milkweed TU PE Population decrease; habitat decline Dry woods; flowers late May—July Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br. Blue False Indigo N PT Population decrease; unique/rare habitat River cobble bars and banks; flowers May— June, identifiable most months by leaf and seed pod Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartm. Long-Bracted Green Orchis TU PE Population decrease; vulnerable to exploitation Rich woods; flowers May—August Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. makasin (Source: Flora of North America) Northern Small Yellow Lady's-Slipper N PE Taxon split into distinct subspecies; low numbers; unique/rare habitat; vulnerable to exploitation Moist woods, bogs; flowers April—June Epilobium strictum Muhl. Downy Willow-Herb PE PR Population increase; habitat decline; unique/rare habitat Wet meadows, marshes, fens, thickets; flowers July—September Equisetum scirpoides Michx. (Source: Flora of North America) Dwarf Scouring-Rush N PE Recent discovery in this Commonwealth; low numbers; unique/rare habitat Wet woods and peaty openings; identifiable year-round Fraxinus profunda (Bush) Bush Pumpkin Ash N PE Low numbers; unique/rare habitat; vulnerable to exotic pest Wet bottomland forest, often in shallow water; identifiable year-round Goodyera tesselata Lodd. Checkered Rattlesnake-Plantain TU PE Population decrease; habitat decline; vulnerable to exploitation Moist coniferous and deciduous forest; flowers July—early September Lycopodiella margueritae J. G. Bruce, W. H. Wagner & Beitel Marguerite's Clubmoss N PE Low numbers; global rarity; unique/rare habitat; vulnerable to exploitation Moist sandy wetlands and shores; sporulates August—October Lysimachia quadriflora Sims Four-Flowered Loosestrife TU PX Population extirpated Wet meadows, fens; flowers July—August Malaxis bayardii Fernald Adder's-Mouth PR PE Population decrease; global rarity; vulnerable to exploitation Dry open upland forest, shale barrens; flowers July—September Platanthera aquilonis Sheviak, Lindleyana (Source: Flora of North America) Northern Green Orchid N PE Taxon split into distinct species; low numbers; vulnerable to exploitation Wet meadows, marshes, fens, stream banks, moist deciduous forest slopes; flowers June— August Platanthera huronensis (Nutt.) Lindl. Huron Green Orchid N PE Taxon split into distinct species; low numbers; vulnerable to exploitation Wet meadows, bogs, woods; flowers June— August Platanthera peramoena (A. Gray) A. Gray Purple Fringeless Orchid TU PT Low numbers; unique/rare habitat; vulnerable to exploitation Moist meadows, low wet woods, ditches; flowers July—August Potentilla anserina L. Silverweed PT PR Unique/rare habitat; tolerant of disturbance Moist sandy or gravelly shores, or ballast; flowers May—June, identifiable by leaf spring—fall Ratibida pinnata (Vent.) Barnhart Gray-Headed Prairie Coneflower TU PE Population decrease Dry fields, limestone uplands, open road- sides; flowers June— August Rubus cuneifolius Pursh Sand Blackberry TU PE Population decrease; habitat decline; unique/rare habitat Sandy dry open thickets and roadsides; flowers May—June, fruits in July, identifiable by leaf spring—fall Solidago uliginosa Nutt. Bog Goldenrod N PT Population decrease; unique/rare habitat Bogs, swamps, wet meadows, fens; flowers August—October Vitis rupestris Scheele Sand Grape PX PE Recent rediscovery in this Commonwealth; low numbers; global rarity; unique/rare habitat River cobble bars and banks; flowers in May, fruits August—Novem- ber; identifiable by leaf spring—fall Zigadenus glaucus (Nutt.) Nutt. White Camas N PE Recent discovery in this Commonwealth; low numbers; unique/rare habitat Limestone ledges; flowers in August
Key: N—Currently Unclassified; PX—Pennsylvania Extirpated (§ 45.11); PE—Pennsylvania Endangered (§ 45.12); PT—Pennsylvania Threatened (§ 45.13); PR—Pennsylvania Rare (§ 45.14); PV—Pennsylvania Vulnerable (§ 45.15); TU—Tentatively Undetermined (§ 45.21)
Classified plant species being declassified
Scientific Name Common Name Current Final Reason for Change Habitat/Identification Alopecurus carolinianus Walt. Tufted Foxtail PE DC Determined to be nonnative to this Commonwealth; determined to be invasive; high numbers Swamps, ditches, moist meadows; flowers late May—June Aster firmus Nees Firm Aster TU DC Tolerant of disturbance; high numbers Wet meadows, swamps, fens; flowers August— October Atriplex littoralis L. Seaside Orach PX DC Recent rediscovery in this Commonwealth; determined to be nonnative to this Commonwealth Coastal areas, beaches, salt-treated roadsides; flowers/fruits August— November Cynanchum laeve (Michx.) Pers. Smooth Swallow-Wort PE DC Population increase; determined to be invasive; tolerant of disturbance River banks, agri- cultural fields, road- sides; flowers July— August Elephantopus carolinianus Raeusch. Elephant's-Foot PE DC Population increase; tolerant of disturbance Open woodlands, woodland borders, serpentine barrens; flowers August— October Elodea canadensis L. C. Rich. Broad Waterweed (Male Plants) TU DC High population numbers Shallow water of rivers, creeks, lakes, ponds; flowers late June—early August Juncus gymnocarpus Coville Coville's Rush PR DC Population increase; tolerant of disturbance Swamps, seeps, springheads; flowers/fruits in summer Lemna obscura (Austin) Daubs Little Water Duckweed PX DC Determined to be nonnative to this Commonwealth; tolerant of disturbance Shallow water, often in disturbed areas; identifiable by leaf spring—fall Lycopodium selago L. Mountain Clubmoss PX DC Misidentified; redetermination Cool boreal cliffs, forests, meadows, shores; sporulates July—September Myriophyllum heterophyllum (Michx.) Broad-Leaved Water-Milfoil PE DC Recent rediscovery in this Commonwealth; determined to be nonnative to this Commonwealth Still water of ponds, lakes; flowers June— July Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers. American Lotus PE DC Determined to be nonnative to this Commonwealth; determined to be invasive Ponds and other quiet water; flowers June— September Panicum bicknellii Nash (Fernald, M. L., Gray's Manual of Botany, 1970, Eighth Edition) Bicknell's Panic-Grass TU DC Taxonomic uncertainties Wet or moist sandy woods; flowers May— early July and late summer—early fall Panicum longiligulatum Nash (Morris Arboretum, 1992, Pennsylvania Flora Database) Long-Ligule Panic-Grass TU DC Taxon lumped with another species Dry woods, slopes, clearings; flowers May—early July and late summer—early fall Panicum recognitum Fern. (Morris Arboretum, 1992, Pennsylvania Flora Database) Fernald's Panic-Grass TU DC Taxon lumped with another species Moist sandy woods; flowers May—early July and late summer—early fall Paronychia fastigiata (Raf.) Fern. var. paleacea Fern. Chaffy Whitlow Wort TU DC Taxon lumped with another species Dry, rocky, sandy open woods and edges; flowers July— September Platanthera hyperborea (L.) Lindl. Leafy Northern Green Orchid PE DC Misidentified; redetermination Wet tundra, stream banks; flowers July— August Polygonum robustius (Small) Fern. Robust Smartweed PT DC Population increase; disturbance tolerant Swamps, lake shores, streams; flowers July— October Potamogeton illinoensis Morong Illinois Pondweed TU DC High numbers; disturbance tolerant Rivers, streams, lakes, ponds; flowers/fruits summer—fall Prenanthes crepidinea Michx. Crepis Rattlesnake-Root PE DC Population increase Open and forested floodplains, banks; flowers August— November Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoides (Leavenw.) Fern. Southern Mountain-Mint PE DC Misidentified; redetermination Open habitat; flowers July—September Solidago purshii Porter Pursh's Goldenrod TU DC Taxon lumped with another species Bogs, swamps, sedge meadows, fens; flowers August—October Spirodela punctata (Mey.) C. H. Thompson Eastern Water- Flaxseed TU DC Determined to be nonnative to this Commonwealth Ponds, lakes, swamps, sluggish streams; identifiable by leaf spring—fall Tradescantia ohiensis Raf. Ohio Spiderwort TU DC High numbers; disturbance tolerant Alluvial woods, waste ground; flowers May— July Trautvetteria caroliniensis (Walt.) Vail Carolina Tassel-Rue PR DC High numbers; disturbance tolerant Wooded seepage slopes, stream banks, bogs; June—July Utricularia inflata Walt. Floating Bladderwort PX DC Determined to be nonnative to this Commonwealth; determined to be invasive Lakes, ponds, standing water; flowers May— October Utricularia minor L. Lesser Bladderwort PT DC Population increase; disturbance tolerant; determined to be invasive Lakes, ponds, swamps, standing water; flowers June—August Utricularia purpurea Walt. Purple Bladderwort PR DC Population increase; disturbance tolerant Lakes, ponds, standing water; flowers July— early September Veronica catenata Pennell Pennell's Speedwell TU DC Taxonomic uncertainties Wet fields, ditches, stream edges in shallow water; flowers May— September Viola nephrophylla Greene Northern Bog Violet TU DC Misidentified; redetermination Bogs, wet meadows, ditches, stream banks; flowers May—July Viola pedatifida G. Don Prairie Violet PE DC Misidentified; redetermination Open prairies, savannas; flowers April—June Zannichellia palustris L. Horned Pondweed TU DC Population increase; disturbance tolerant Streams, ponds, lakes, springs, tidal mudflats; flowers May—October
Key: DC—Declassified; N—Currently Unclassified; PX—Pennsylvania Extirpated (§ 45.11); PE—Pennsylvania Endangered (§ 45.12); PT—Pennsylvania Threatened (§ 45.13); PR—Pennsylvania Rare (§ 45.14); PV—Pennsylvania Vulnerable (§ 45.15); TU—Tentatively Undetermined (§ 45.21)
Plant name changes
Pennsylvania Extirpated (§ 45.11)
The names of 16 native wild plant species classified as Pennsylvania Extirpated will be amended as follows:
Carex aenea Fern. to Carex foenea Willd.
Erianthus giganteus (Walt.) Muhl. to Saccharum giganteum (Walter) Pers.
Eupatorium album L. to Eupatorium album L. var album
Gentianopsis procera (Holm) Ma. to Gentianopsis virgata (Raf.) Holub
Helianthum angustifolius L. to Helianthus angustifolius L.
Hypericum stans (Michx.) P. Adams & Robson to Hypericum crux-andreae (L.) Crantz
Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers. to Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schultes
Lycopodium sabinifolium Willd. to Diphasiastrum sabinifolium (Willd.) Holub.
Panicum leibergii (Vasey) Scribn. (Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist, Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 1991, Second Edition) to Dichanthelium leibergii (Vasey) Freckmann
Panicum spretum Schultes (Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist, Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 1991, Second Edition) to Dichanthelium spretum (Schult.) Freckmann
Phoradendron serotinum (Raf.) M. C. Johnston to Phoradendron leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M. C. Johnst.
Sagittaria stagnorum Small to Sagittaria filiformis J. G. Sm.
Scirpus heterochaetus Chase to Schoenoplectus heterochaetus Chase (Sojak)
Sisyrinchium arenicola E. P. Bickn. to Sisyrinchium fuscatum E. P. Bicknell
Sparganium minimum (Hartm.) Fries to Sparganium natans L.
Triglochin palustre L. to Triglochin palustris L.
Pennsylvania Endangered (§ 45.12)
The names of 28 native wild plant species classified as Pennsylvania Endangered will be amended as follows:
Alisma plantago-aquatica L. var. americana Schultes & Schultes to Alisma triviale Pursh
Aster borealis (Torr. & Gray) Prov. to Symphyotrichum boreale (Torr. & Gray) Á Löve & D. Löve
Aster nemoralis Ait. to Oclemena nemoralis (Aiton) E. Greene
Aster solidagineus Michx. to Sericocarpus linifolius (L.) Britton, Stearns & Poggenb.
Aster spectabilis Ait. to Eurybia spectabilis (Aiton) Nesom
Cerastium arvense (L.) var. villosissimum Pennell to Cerastium velutinum Raf. var. villossissimum (Pennell) J. K. Morton
Cymophyllus fraseri (Andr.) Mackenzie to Cymophyllus fraserianus (Ker Gawl.) Kartesz & Gandhi
Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. to Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. parviflorum (Source: Flora of North America)
Frasera caroliniensis Walt. to Swertia caroliniensis (Walter) Kuntze
Hemicarpha micrantha (Vahl) Britt. to Lipocarpha micrantha (Vahl) G. C. Tucker
Lycopodium alopecuroides L. to Lycopodiella alopecuroides(L.) Cranfill
Lycopodium porophilum Lloyd & Underwood to Huperzia porophila (F. E. Lloyd & Underw.) Holub
Megalodonta beckii (Torr. ex Spreng.) Greene to Bidens beckii (Torr. ex Spreng.) Greene
Myriophyllum exalbescens Fern. to Myriophyllum sibiricum Komarov
Onosmodium hispidissimum Mackenzie to Onosmodium molle Michx. var. hispidissimum (Mack.) Cronquist
Oryzopsis pungens (Torr. ex Spreng.) A. S. Hitchc. to Piptatherum pungens (Torr. ex Spreng.) Dorn
Panicum scoparium (Lam.) Gould (Morris Arboretum, 1992, Pennsylvania Flora Database) to Dichanthelium scoparium (Lam.) Gould
Panicum xanthophysum (Gray) Freckmann (Morris Arboretum, 1992, Pennsylvania Flora Database) to Dichanthelium xanthophysum (A. Gray) Freckmann
Polygonum careyi Olney to Persicaria careyi (Olney) Greene
Polygonum setaceum Baldw. ex Ell. var. interjectum Fern. to Persicaria setacea (Baldwin) Small
Sagittaria calycina Engelm. var. spongiosa Engelm. to Sagittaria calycina Engelm.
Scirpus acutus Muhl. ex Bigelow to Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. Ex Bigel.) Löve & Löve
Scirpus smithii Gray to Schoenoplectus smithii (A. Gray) Sojak
Scirpus torreyi Olney to Schoenoplectus torreyi (Olney) Palla
Scleria reticularis Michx. to Scleria muhlenbergii Steud.
Senecio antennariifolius Britt. to Packera antennariifolia (Britton) W. A. Weber Á Löve
Solidago spathula DC. spp. randii var. racemosa (Greene) Gleason to Solidago simplex Kunth ssp. randii (Porter) Ringius var. racemosa (Greene) Ringius
Tomanthera auriculata (Michx.) Raf. to Agalinis auriculata (Michx.) S. F. Blake
Pennsylvania Threatened (§ 45.13)
The names of nine native wild plant species classified as Pennsylvania Threatened will be amended as follows:
Aster depauperatus (Porter) Fern. to Symphyotrichum depauperatum (Fernald) Nesom
Aster novi-belgii L. to Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (L.) Nesom var. novi-belgii
Cimicifuga americana Michx. to Actaea podocarpa DC
Euthamia tenuifolia (Pursh) Greene to Euthamia caroliniana (L.) Greene ex Porter & Britton
Juncus alpinus Vill. to Juncus alpinoarticulatus Chaix in Vill. ssp. nodulosus (Wahlenb.) Hamet-Ahti.
Juncus balticus Willd. to Juncus arcticus Willd. var. littoralis (Engelm.) Boivin.
Lycopodium appressum (Chapman) Lloyd & Underwood to Lycopodiella appressa (Chapm.) Cranfill
Spiraea betulifolia Pallas ssp. corymbosa (Raf.) Taylor & MacBryde to Spiraea betulifolia Pallas var. corymbosa (Raf.) Maxim.
Talinum teretifolium Pursh to Phemeranthus teretifolius (Pursh) Raf.
Pennsylvania Rare (§ 45.14)
The names of four native wild plant species classified as Pennsylvania Rare will be amended as follows:
Panicum commonsianum Ashe var. euchlamydeum (Skinners) Pohl (Morris Arboretum, 1992, Pennsylvania Flora Database) to Dichanthelium commonsianum (Ashe) Freckmann var. euchlamydeum (Shinners) Pohl
Prunus pumila L. to Prunus pumila L. var. pumila
Scirpus fluviatilis (Torr.) Gray to Schoenoplectus fluviatilis (Torr.) Strong
Senecio anonymus Wood to Packera anonyma (A. W. Wood) W. A. Weber & Á Löve
Pennsylvania Vulnerable (§ 45.15)
The name of Cypripedium pubescens Willd. will be amended to Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. pubescens (Willd.) Correll.
Tentatively Undetermined (§ 45.21)
The names of 21 native wild plant species classified as tentatively undetermined will be amended as follows:
Aristida curtissii (Gray) Nash to Aristida dichotoma Michx. var. curtissii A. Gray
Aster dumosus L. to Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) Nesom
Aster ericoides L. to Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) Nesom
Cassia marilandica L. to Senna marilandica (L.) Link
Hedyotis purpurea (L.) Torr. & Gray to Houstonia purpurea L. var. purpurea
Liatris scariosa (L.) Willd. var. nieuwlandii Lunell and Liatris scariosa (L.) Willd. var. novae-angliae Lunell combined Liatris scariosa (L.) Willd.
Malaxis brachypoda (Gray) Fern. to Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Swartz var. brachypoda (A. Gray) F. Morris & E. A. Eames
Nuphar lutea (L.) Sibthorp & Sm. ssp. pumilum (Timm) E. O. Beal to Nuphar microphylla (Pers.) Fernald
Panicum annulum Ashe (Morris Arboretum, 1992, Pennsylvania Flora Database) to Dichanthelium annulum (Ashe) LeBlond
Panicum boreale Nash (Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist, Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 1991, Second Edition) to Dichanthelium boreale (Nash) Freckmann
Panicum commonsianum Ashe var. commonsianum (Morris Arboretum, 1992, Pennsylvania Flora Database) to Dichanthelium commonsianum (Ashe) Freckmann
Panicum lucidum Ashe (Fernald, M. L., Gray's Manual of Botany, 1970, Eighth Edition) to Dichanthelium lucidum (Ashe) LeBlond
Panicum villosissimum Nash (Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist, Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 1991, Second Edition) to Dichanthelium villosissimum (Nash) Freckmann
Panicum yadkinense Ashe (Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist, Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 1991, Second Edition) to Dichanthelium yadkinense (Ashe) Mohlenbr.
Potamogeton filiformis Pers. to Potamogeton filiformis Pers. var. borealis (Raf.) St. John
Pycnanthemum pilosum Nutt. to Pycnanthemum verticillatum (Michx.) Pers. var. pilosum (Nutt.) Cooperr.
Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix (Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist, Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 1991, Second Edition) to Ranunculus aquatilis L. var. diffusus With.
Rhynchospora globularis (Chapman) Small to Rhynchospora recognita (Gale) Kral
Senecio plattensis Nutt. to Packera plattensis (Nutt.) W. A. Weber & Á Löve
Uvularia puberula Michx. to Uvularia pudica Michx.
G. Benefits, Costs and Compliance
This final-form rulemaking will benefit State, county and municipal conservation planning officials, conservation groups and other organizations concerned with the welfare of the environment because it more accurately represents the plants in this Commonwealth in need of the most protection. Additionally, this rulemaking benefits the citizens of this Commonwealth by protecting this Commonwealth's natural resources, which is a constitutional right. See Pa.Const. Art. I, § 27.
Keeping up-to-date classifications of native wild plants, ensures that the Department and other public and private conservation organizations are targeting the appropriate species in their conservation efforts. This will help maintain the biodiversity of ecological systems in this Commonwealth.
This final-form rulemaking does not prescribe anything for a group or entity to comply with. This final-form rulemaking updates the Commonwealth's classified lists of native wild plants, updates the scientific and common names of certain native wild plant species, and updates the reference source of the nomenclature that the Department uses for native wild plant species taxonomy. There are no compliance costs associated with this final-form rulemaking.
There will be no increase in the amount of required paperwork associated with this final-form rulemaking.
H. Sunset Review
The regulations will be reviewed in accordance with the sunset review schedule published by the Department to determine whether the regulations effectively fulfill the goals for which they were intended.
I. Regulatory Review
Under section 5(a) of the Regulatory Review Act (71 P.S. § 745.5(a)), on November 6, 2017, the Department submitted a copy of the proposed rulemaking and a copy of a Regulatory Analysis Form to IRRC and to the Chairpersons of the Senate and House Environmental Resources and Energy Committees. A copy of this material is available to the public upon request.
Under section 5(c) of the Regulatory Review Act, the Department provided IRRC and the Senate and House Committees with copies of the comments the Department received during the public comment period, as well as other documents when requested. The Department considered all comments from IRRC and the public in preparing this final-form rulemaking.
Under section 5.1(j.2) of the Regulatory Review Act (71 P.S. § 745.5a(j.2)), on October 17, 2018 the final-form rulemaking was deemed approved by the Senate and House Committees. IRRC did not comment on, make recommendations regarding, or object to any portion of the proposed rulemaking, and the Department did not make any changes to the proposed rulemaking. Thus, under section 5.1(e) of the Regulatory Review Act (71 P.S. § 745.5a(e)), IRRC met on October 18, 2018, and the final-form rulemaking was deemed approved under 5(g) of the Regulatory Review Act.
The Department finds that:
(1) Public notice of proposed rulemaking was given under sections 201 and 202 of the act of July 31, 1968 (P.L. 769, No. 240) (45 P.S. §§ 1201 and 1202) and regulations promulgated thereunder, 1 Pa. Code §§ 7.1 and 7.2.
(2) At least a 30-day public comment period was provided as required by law and all comments were considered.
(3) This final-form rulemaking does not enlarge the purpose of the proposed rulemaking published at 47 Pa.B. 7210.
(4) This final-form rulemaking is necessary and appropriate for administration and enforcement of the authorizing acts identified in section C of this preamble.
The Department, acting under the authorizing statutes, orders that:
(a) The regulations of the Department, 17 Pa. Code Ch. 45, are amended by amending §§ 45.2, 45.3, 45.11—45.15 and 45.21 to read as set forth in Annex A.
(b) The Department shall submit this final-form regulation to the Office of General Counsel and Office of Attorney General, as required by law, for approval as to form and legality.
(c) The Department shall submit this final-form regulation to the IRRC and the Senate and House Environmental Resources and Energy Committees as required by law.
(d) The Department shall certify this final-form regulation and deposit it with the Legislative Reference Bureau, as required by law.
(e) This final-form rulemaking shall take effect upon publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin.
CINDY ADAMS DUNN,
(Editor's Note: See 48 Pa.B. 7085 (November 3, 2018) for IRRC's approval order.)
Fiscal Note: Fiscal Note 7B-08 remains valid for the final adoption of the subject regulations.
TITLE 17. CONSERVATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES
PART I. DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES
Subpart D. RESOURCE CONSERVATION
CHAPTER 45. CONSERVATION OF PENNSYLVANIA NATIVE WILD PLANTS
Subchapter A. GENERAL PROVISIONS
§ 45.2. Definitions.
The following words and terms, when used in this chapter, have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
* * * * *
Tentatively Undetermined—A classification of plant species which are believed to be in danger of population decline, but which cannot presently be included within another classification due to taxonomic uncertainties, limited evidence within historical records or insufficient data.
Wild plants—Naturally occurring native flora, except those commonly considered an agricultural commodity, including green and nongreen species or subspecies, variety or a part, product, seed or progeny thereof.
§ 45.3. Classified plant taxonomy.
Nomenclature used to identify species taxonomy in Subchapter B (relating to classified plants) is according to Rhoads, A. F. and Block, T. A. (2007), The Plants of Pennsylvania An Illustrated Manual Second Edition, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press., unless a different taxonomic source is indicated immediately following the scientific name.
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