§ 299.122. Storage tanks.
(a) Residual waste storage tanks shall meet the design and performance standards established by this section. A storage tank shall be clearly labeled as residual waste and the type of residual waste shall be identified.
(b) Aboveground residual waste storage tanks shall be designed and operated as follows, unless an alternative design is demonstrated to perform at a level equivalent to the requirements of this section and is otherwise approved by the Department:
(1) Tanks shall be designed and constructed in accordance with an appropriate current code of practice developed by Nationally recognized associations such as UL, ACI, API, ASME, ASTM or NACE.
(2) Tanks shall have a stable foundation, capable of supporting the total weight of the tank when full of waste without movement, rolling or unacceptable settling. The foundation shall minimize corrosion of the tank bottom and meet or exceed the specifications of the tank manufacturer. The foundation design and construction shall be based on sound engineering practices.
(3) Newly installed or repaired tanks shall be tested for tightness in accordance with current codes of practice developed by Nationally recognized associations and manufacturers specifications. If a pneumatic test is used for manufactured (shop built) tanks, the fittings, welds, joints and connections shall be coated with a soap solution and checked for leaks. Deficiencies shall be remedied prior to tanks being placed into service. Hydrostatic test fluids shall be discharged or disposed of in accordance with State and Federal requirements.
(4) Tank connections through which waste can flow shall be equipped with an operating valve adjacent to the tank to control flow of waste. Appropriate valves shall be installed to meet or exceed current codes of practice and jurisdictional requirements. Valves shall be designed, installed and maintained according to current codes of practice.
(5) The exterior surfaces of aboveground tanks and piping shall be protected by a suitable coating, which prevents corrosion and deterioration. The coating system shall be maintained throughout the entire operational life of the tank.
(6) Owners and operators shall ensure that releases from overfills do not occur. Transfer of stored waste may not exceed the volume available in receiving tank and the transfer shall be adequately monitored. Immediate action shall be taken to stop the flow of waste prior to exceeding tank capacity or in the event that an equipment failure occurs.
(7) Tanks shall be installed with the following:
(i) A gauge or monitoring device which accurately indicates the level or volume in the tank and is visible to the individual responsible for the transfer of waste. The monitoring device shall be installed, calibrated and maintained in accordance with manufacturers specifications.
(ii) A high-level alarm and an automatic high-level cut-off device or a high-level alarm and a manned operator shutdown procedure in operation.
(8) Containment structures shall be compatible with the wastes stored and minimize deterioration to the storage tank system.
(9) Containment areas shall be designed, maintained and constructed in accordance with sound engineering practices adhering to Nationally recognized codes of practice, such as NFPS, NACE, ACI or API and in compliance with State and Federal requirements.
(10) Secondary containment under the tank bottom and around underground piping shall be designed to direct any release to a monitoring point.
(11) Permeability of the secondary containment shall be less than 1 x 10-7 cm/sec at anticipated hydrostatic head.
(12) Aboveground tanks shall have emergency containment structures, such as dike fields, curbing and containment collection systems, which contain releases from overfills, leaks and spills.
(13) Permeability of emergency containment structures shall be less than 1 x 10-6 cm/sec at anticipated hydrostatic head and be of sufficient thickness to prevent the released waste from penetrating the containment structure for a minimum of 72 hours and until the release can be detected and recovered.
(14) Emergency containment areas, such as dike fields, shall be able to contain 110% of the capacity of the largest tank in the containment area.
(15) Stormwater shall be removed from the emergency containment area as soon as possible or when the water is in contact with the tank or piping and prior to the capacity of containment being reduced by 10% or more. Manually operated pumps or siphons and manually operated gravity drains may be used to empty the containment. If drain valves are used, they shall be secured in the closed position when not in use. Discharge or disposal of wastes from the containment structure shall comply with applicable State and Federal requirements.
(16) Aboveground tank systems shall provide method of leak detection capable of detecting a release. The leak detection method shall be monitored at least monthly and shall be installed, calibrated, operated and maintained in accordance with industry practices and manufacturers specifications.
(i) The area beneath the tank bottom shall be monitored for leakage by visual, mechanical or electronic leak detection methods.
(ii) Observation wells outside of the secondary containment structure do not satisfy the leak detection requirements.
(c) Underground residual waste storage tanks shall be designed and operated as follows, unless an alternative design is demonstrated to perform at a level equivalent to the requirements of this section and is otherwise approved by the Department:
(1) Corrosion protection.
(i) Parts of the system that routinely contain waste shall be protected from deterioration. Parts that are in contact with the ground shall be properly designed, constructed and protected from corrosion in accordance with a code of practice developed by a Nationally recognized association or independent testing laboratory.
(ii) System components constructed of metal do not need additional corrosion protection measures if:
(A) The site is determined by a corrosion expert to not be corrosive enough to cause a release due to corrosion during the systems operating life.
(B) Owners and operators maintain records that demonstrate compliance with clause (A) for the remaining life of the tank system including removal and closure.
(2) Spill and overfill prevention equipment.
(i) Except as provided in subparagraph (ii), to prevent spilling and overfilling associated with waste transfer to the underground storage tank system, owners and operators shall ensure that their systems have the following spill and overfill prevention equipment:
(A) Spill prevention equipment that will prevent release of waste to the environment when the transfer hose is detached from the fill pipe.
(B) Overfill prevention equipment that will do one or more of the following:
(I) Automatically shut off flow into the tank before the fittings on the top of the tank are touched by waste.
(II) Restrict the flow into the tank before it is 90% full or 30 minutes before it would be full.
(III) Activate an audible and visible high level alarm before the tank is 90% full or 30 minutes before it would be full.
(ii) Owners and operators are not required to use overfill prevention equipment if the underground storage tank system is filled by transfers of no more than 25 gallons at one time.
(3) Installation. Tanks and piping shall be properly installed and system integrity tested in accordance with a code of practice developed by a Nationally recognized association or independent testing laboratory such as API 1615 and PEI RP 100, and in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
(4) Releases due to corrosion. To ensure that releases due to corrosion are prevented for as long as the underground storage tank system is used to store waste, the owner and operator shall comply with the following requirements:
(i) Corrosion protection systems shall be operated and maintained to continuously provide corrosion protection to the metal components of that portion of the tank and piping that routinely contain wastes and is in contact with the ground.
(ii) Underground storage tank systems equipped with cathodic protection systems shall be inspected for proper operation by a qualified cathodic protection tester in accordance with the following requirements:
(A) Frequency. Cathodic protection systems shall be tested within 6 months of installation and at least every 3 years thereafter.
(B) Inspection criteria. The criteria that are used to determine that cathodic protection is adequate as required by this section shall be in accordance with a code of practice developed by a Nationally recognized association.
(iii) Underground storage tank systems with impressed current cathodic protection systems shall be checked every 60 days to ensure the equipment is operating properly.
(iv) For underground storage tank systems using cathodic protection, records of the operation of the cathodic protection shall be maintained. These records shall provide the following:
(A) The results of the last three system checks required in paragraph (4)(iii).
(B) The results of testing from the last two inspections required in paragraph (4)(ii).
(5) Unauthorized or accidental access. Monitoring and observation wells shall be clearly identified using industry codes and standards and caps shall be secured to prevent unauthorized or accidental access.
(6) Maintenance. Sumps, release detection equipment, corrosion protection, spill prevention, overfill prevention and other appurtenances whose failure could contribute to a release of waste, shall be maintained in a good state of repair and shall function as designed.
(7) Tightness testing. Systems shall be precision tightness tested after installation and major repairs.
(8) Monitoring for releases. Portions of the tank and underground piping that routinely contain waste shall be monitored at least monthly for releases.
(9) Method evaluation. The method or combination of methods used shall have been evaluated by an independent third party and shown to be effective in detecting releases.
(10) Records. Records documenting the operation of the release detection method shall be made each month and kept for at least 1 year.
The provisions of this § 299.122 amended January 12, 2001, effective January 13, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 235. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (226896).
This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 288.455 (relating to leachate collection and storage); 25 Pa. Code § 288.555 (relating to leachate collection and storage); 25 Pa. Code § 289.455 (relating to leachate collection and storage); 25 Pa. Code § 298.22 (relating to waste oil storage); 25 Pa. Code § 298.45 (relating to waste oil storage at transfer facility); 25 Pa. Code § 298.54 (relating to waste oil management); 25 Pa. Code § 298.64 (relating to waste oil storage); 25 Pa. Code § 289.555 (relating to leachate collection and storage); and 25 Pa. Code § 299.101 (relating to scope).
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