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COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA

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The Pennsylvania Code website reflects the Pennsylvania Code changes effective through 52 Pa.B. 3204 (May 28, 2022).

67 Pa. Code § 153.4. Requirements.

§ 153.4. Requirements.

 (a)  Required motor vehicle lighting equipment. Required equipment shall be as follows:

   (1)  Except as provided in succeeding subparagraphs, each vehicle shall be equipped with at least the number of lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment specified in Tables I and III of Appendix A, as applicable. Required equipment shall be designed to conform to the SAE Standards or Recommended Practices referenced in those tables. Table I of Appendix A shall apply to multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, and buses, 80 or more inches in overall width. Table III of Appendix A shall apply to passen- ger cars and motorcycles and to multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, and buses, less than 80 inches in overall width.

     (i)   A truck tractor need not be equipped with turn signal lamps mounted on the rear if the turn signal lamps at or near the front are so constructed, double-faced and so located that they meet the requirements for double-faced turn signals specified in SAE Standard J588e, ‘‘Turn Signal Lamps,’’ September 1970.

     (ii)   A truck tractor need not be equipped with any rear side marker devices, rear clearance lamps, and rear identification lamps.

     (iii)   Intermediate side marker devices shall not be required on vehicles less than 30 feet in overall length.

     (iv)   Reflective material conforming to Federal Specification L-S-300, ‘‘Sheeting and Tape, Reflective; Nonexposed Lens, Adhesive Backing,’’ September 7, 1965, may be used for side reflex reflectors if this material, as used on the vehicle, meets the performance standards in Table I of SAE Standard J594d, ‘‘Reflex Reflectors,’’ March 1967.

     (v)   The turn signal operating unit on each passenger car, and multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus less than 80 inches in overall width manufactured on or after January 1, 1973, shall be self-cancelling by steering wheel rotation and capable of cancellation by a manually operated control.

     (vi)   Each stop lamp on any motor vehicle manufactured between January 1, 1973, and September 1, 1978, may be designed to conform to SAE Standard J586b, ‘‘Stop Lamps,’’ June 1966. It shall meet the photometric minimum candlepower requirements for class A red turn signal lamps specified in SAE Standard J575d, ‘‘Test for Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices and Components,’’ August 1967. Each such lamp on a passenger car and on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer, or bus less than 80 inches in overall width shall have an effective projected luminous area not less than 3 1/2 square inches. If multiple compartment lamps or multiple lamps are used, the effective projected luminous area of each compartment or lamp shall be not less than 3 1/2 square inches; however, the photometric requirements may be met by a combination of compartments or lamps.

     (vii)   Each turn signal lamp on any motor vehicle, except motorcycles, manufactured between January 1, 1972, and September 1, 1978, may be designed to conform to SAE Standard J588d, ‘‘Turn Signal Lamps,’’ June 1966, and shall meet the photometric minimum candlepower requirements for Class A turn signal lamps specified in SAE Standard J575d, ‘‘Tests for Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices and Components,’’ August 1967. Each such lamp on a passenger car and on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer or bus less than 80 inches in overall width shall have an effective projected luminous area not less than 3 1/2 square inches. If multiple compartment lamps or multiple lamps are used, the effective projected luminous area of each compartment or lamp shall be not less than 3 1/2 square inches; however, the photometric requirements may be met by a combination of compartments or lamps. Each such lamp on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer or bus 80 inches or more in overall width shall have an effective projected luminous area not less than 12 square inches.

     (viii)   For each passenger car, and each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer, and bus of less than 80 inches in overall width the photometric minimum candlepower requirements for side marker lamps specified in SAE Standard J592e ‘‘Clearance, Side Marker, and Identification Lamps,’’ July 1972, may be met for all inboard test points at a distance of 15 feet from the vehicle and on a vertical plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and located midway between the front and rear side marker lamps.

     (ix)   Boat trailers need not be equipped with both front and rear clearance lamps provided an amber, to front, and red, to rear, clearance lamp is located at or near the midpoint on each side of the trailer so as to indicate its extreme width.

     (x)   Multiple license plate lamps and backup lamps may be used to fulfill the requirements of the SAE Standards applicable to such lamps referenced in Appendixes A and C of this chapter.

     (xi)   A parking lamp shall not be required to meet the minimum photometric values at each test point specified in Table I of SAE Standard J222. ‘‘Parking Lamps (Position Lamps),’’ if the sum of the candlepower measured at the test points within the groups listed in Figure 1 of this section is not less than the sum of the candlepower values for such test points specified in J222.

     (xii)   A tail lamp, stop lamp, or turn signal lamp shall not be required to meet the minimum photometric values at each test point specified in the referenced SAE Standards, if the sum of the candlepower measured at the test points is not less than that specified for each group listed in Figure 1 of this section, or for motorcycle turn signal lamps, not less than 1/2 of such sum.

GROUP TOTALS, CANDLEPOWER


Red stop and turnYellow turn
TestTail lampssignal lampssignal lamps
pointsParking
GroupsdegreeslampsOneTwoThreeOneTwoThreeOneTwoThree
1…{20L-5U20L-H20L-5D10L-10U10L-10D}2.81.62.73.8556680135165190
2…{10U-V5U-10L5U-10R}2.42.13.65.585100115210251290
3…{10L-H5L-5U5L-5D}4.23.45.38.0140167195350420490
4…{5U-VH-5LH-VH-5R5D-V}16.89.616.524.03804495209501,1301,295
5…{5R-5U5R-5D10R-H}4.23.45.38.0140167195350420490
6…{5D-10L5D-10R10D-V}2.2.13.65.585100115210251290
7…{10R-10U10R-10D20R-5U20R-H20R-5D}2.81.62.73.855668135165190
Maximum rear lamps only …152025300360420900900900


     (xiii)   [Reserved].

     (xiv)   [Reserved].

     (xv)   [Reserved].

     (xvi)   All passengers cars and multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses of less than 80 inches overall width shall be equipped with turn signal operating units designed to complete a durability test of 100,000 cycles.

     (xvii)   A trailer that is less than 30 inches in overall width may be equipped with only one of each of the following lamps and reflective devices, located at or near its vertical centerline: tail lamp, stop lamp and near reflex reflector.

     (xviii)   A trailer that is less than 6 feet in overall length, including the trailer tongue, need not be equipped with front side marker lamps and front side reflex reflectors.

     (xix)   A lamp manufactured on or after January 1, 1974, and designed to use a type of bulb that has not been assigned a mean spherical candlepower rating by its manufacturer and is not listed in SAE Standard J573d, ‘‘Lamp Bulbs and Sealed Units,’’ December 1968, shall meet the applicable requirements of this standard when used with any bulb of the type specified by the lamp manufacturer, operated at the bulb’s design voltage. A lamp that contains a sealed-in bulb shall meet these requirements with the bulb operated at the design voltage of the bulb.

     (xx)   Except for a lamp having a sealed-in bulb, a lamp manufactured on or after January 1, 1974, shall meet the applicable requirements of this standard when tested with a bulb whose filament is positioned within plus or minus 0.010 inch of the nominal design position specified in SAE Standard J573d, ‘‘Lamp Bulbs and Sealed Units,’’ December 1968 or specified by the bulb manufacturer.

     (xxi)   Instead of a headlighting system of two Type 1 headlamps and two Type 2, 5 3/4-inch headlamps, a vehicle manufactured on or after January 1, 1974 may be equipped with a headlighting system of two Type 1A headlamps and two Type 2A headlamps that meet the following requirements:

       (A)   Each Type 1A headlamp and Type 2A headlamp shall be designed to conform with the requirements for a Type 1 headlamp and Type 2, 5 3/4-inch headlamp respectively, as specified in any SAE Standard or Recommended Practice, referenced or subreferenced by Tables I and III of Appendix A, except as provided in clauses (B) and (C).

       (B)   Each Type 1A and Type 2A headlamp shall be designed to conform with the applicable dimensional requirements and specifications of Figure 2 of this section. At a voltage of 12.8 volts, the maximum design wattage with an allowable tolerance of plus 7.5% shall be 50 watts for a Type 1A headlamp and 60 watts for each filament of a Type 2A headlamp.

       (C)   The following SAE Standards and Recommended Practices or portions thereof, shall not apply:

         (I)   SAE Standard J571b, ‘‘Dimensional Specifications for Sealed Beam Headlamp Units,’’ April 1965.

         (II)   SAE Standard J573d,  ‘‘Lamp Bulbs and Sealed Units,’’ December 1968.

         (III)   Figure 1, SAE Recommended Practice J602, ‘‘Headlamp Aiming Device for Mechanically Aimable Sealed Beam Headlamp Units,’’ August 1963.

         (IV)   Paragraph 2 of ‘‘Retaining Ring Requirements,’’ and the paragraph ‘‘Proper Seating of Sealed Beam Unit,’’ SAE Standard J580a, ‘‘Sealed Beam Headlamp,’’ June 1966.

Rectangular headlamp Specifications

     (xxii)   A backup lamp shall not be required to meet the miniumum photometric values at each test point specified in Table I of SAE Standard J593c ‘‘Backup Lamps,’’ if the sum of the candlepower measured at the test points within each group listed in Figure 3 of this section is not less than the group totals specified in that figure.

   Minimum luminous intensity requirements for
backup lamps


GroupTest point, degreesTotal for
group, candela
(see note 1)
11{45L-5U…45L-H…45L-5D…}45
21{30L-H…30L-5D…}50
3…{10L-10U…10L-5U…V-10U…V-5U… 10R-10U…10R-5U…}100
4…{10L-H…10L-5D…V-H…V-5D…10R-H…10R-5D…}360
51{30R-H…30R-5D…}50
61{45R-5U…45R-H…45R-5D…}45

 

  1 When 2 lamps of the same or symmetrically opposite design are used, the reading along the vertical axis and the averages of the readings for the same angles left and right of vertical for 1 lamp shall be used to determine compliance with the requirements. If 2 lamps of differing designs are used, they shall be tested individually and the values added to determine that the combined units meet twice the candela requirements. When only 1 backup lamp is used on the vehicle, it shall be tested to twice the candela requirements.

   Figure 3

     (xxiii)   Variable load turn signal flashers shall comply with voltage drop and durability requirements with the maximum design load connected and shall comply with starting time, flash rate, and percent current ‘‘on’’ time requirements both with the minimum and with the maximum design load connected.

     (xxiv)   The lowest voltage drop for turn signal flashers and hazard warning signal flashers measured between the input and load terminals shall not exceed 0.8 volt.

     (xxv)   The only required equipment for mobile structure trailers shall be stop lamps, tail lamps, rear reflex reflectors and turn signal lamps.

     (xxvi)   A motor-driven cycle whose speed attainable in one mile is 30 miles per hour or less need not be equipped with turn signal lamps.

     (xxvii)   A motor-driven cycle whose speed attainable in one mile is 30 miles per hour or less may be equipped with a stop lamp whose photometric output for the groups of test points specified in Figure 1 of this section is at least 1/2 of the minimum values set forth in that figure.

     (xxviii)   Each tail lamp on any motor vehicle manufactured before September 1, 1978, may be designed to conform to SAE Standard J585c, ‘‘Tail Lamps,’’ June 1966.

     (xxix)   Each turn signal lamp on a motorcycle manufactured between January 1, 1973, and September 1, 1978, may be designed to conform to SAE Standard J588d, ‘‘Turn Signal Lamps,’’ June 1966.

     (xxx)   Except as provided in subparagraph (xii), each turn signal lamp on a motorcycle shall meet 1/2 of the minimum photometric values at each test point specified for Class A turn signal lamps in SAE Standard J575d, ‘‘Tests for Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices and Components,’’ August 1967, or in SAE Standard J588e, ‘‘Turn Signal Lamps,’’ September 1970, as applicable.

     (xxxi)   Each turn signal lamp on a motorcycle manufactured on and after January 1, 1973, shall have an effective projected luminous area not less than 3 1/2 square inches.

     (xxxii)   Note 6 of Table 1 in SAE Standard J588e, ‘‘Turn Signal Lamps,’’ September 1970, shall not apply. A stop lamp that is not optically combined with a turn signal lamp shall remain activated when the turn signal is flashing.

     (xxxiii)   Headlamps may conform to SAE Standard J579c, ‘‘Sealed Beam Headlamp Units for Motor Vehicles,’’ December 1974, except that:

       (A)   In Table I of SAE Standard J579c, the maximum candela at any test point shall not exceed 37,500.

       (B)   In Table II of SAE Standard J579c, the combined maximum candela at any test point shall not exceed 37,500.

       (C)   At a voltage of 12.8 volts, the maximum design wattage, with an allowable tolerance of plus 7.5%, shall be as follows: 50 watts for Type 1 (5 3/4-inch); 37.5 watts for Type 2 (5 3/4-inch) high beam; and 60 watts for Type 2 (5 3/4-inch) low beam, Type 2 (7-inch) low beam and Type 2 (7-inch) high beam.

   (2)  Plastic materials used for optical parts such as lenses and reflectors shall conform to SAE Recommended Practice J576c, May 1970, except that:

     (i)   Plastic materials manufactured before January 1, 1976, may conform to SAE J576b, August 1966.

     (ii)   Plastic lenses used for inner lenses or those covered by another material and not exposed directly to sunlight shall meet the requirements of paragraphs 3.4 and 4.2 of SAE J576b, or J576c, as applicable, when covered by the outer lens or other material.

     (iii)   After the outdoor exposure test, the haze and loss of surface luster of plastic materials used for lamp lenses shall not be greater than 30% haze as measured by ASTM-1003-61, ‘‘Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastic.’’

     (iv)   After the outdoor exposure test, plastic materials used for reflex reflectors shall meet the appearance requirements of paragraph 4.2.2 of SAE J576b or J576c as applicable.

   (3)  No additional lamp, reflective device, or other motor vehicle equipment shall be installed that impairs the effectiveness of lighting equipment required by this chapter.

   (4)  Each school bus shall be equipped with a system of four red signal lamps designed to conform to SAE Standard J887, ‘‘School Bus Red Signal Lamps,’’ July 1964, and four amber signal lamps designed to conform to that standard, except for their color, and except that their candlepower shall be at least 2 1/2 times that specified for red signal lamps. Both red and amber lamps shall be installed in accordance with SAE Standard J887, except that:

     (i)   Each amber signal lamp shall be located near each red signal lamp, at the same level, but closer to the vertical centerline of the bus.

     (ii)   The system shall be wired so that the amber signal lamps are activated only by manual or foot operation, and if activated, are automatically deactivated and the red signal lamps automatically activated when the bus entrance door is opened.

   (5)  The color in all lighting equipment covered by this standard shall be in accordance with SAE Standard J578a, April 1965, ‘‘Color Specification for Electric Signal Lighting Devices.’’

 (b)  Other requirements. The words ‘‘it is recommended that,’’ ‘‘recommendations,’’ or ‘‘should be’’ appearing in any SAE Standard or Recommended Practice referenced or subreferenced in this chapter shall be read as setting forth mandatory requirements, except that the aiming pads on the lens face and the black area surrounding the signal lamp, recommended in SAE Standard J887, ‘‘School Bus Red Signal Lamps,’’ July 1964, shall not be required.

 (c)  Location of required equipment. Except as provided in paragraphs (1)—(8), each lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the vehicle other than glazing that is not designed to be removed except for repair, in accordance with the requirements of Table I or III of Appendix A of this chapter and in locations specified in Table II of Appendix A of this chapter, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers and buses 80 or more inches in overall width, or Table IV of Appendix A of this chapter, all passenger cars,and motorcycles, and multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers and buses less than 80 inches in overall width, as applicable.

   (1)  Except as provided in this paragraph, each lamp and reflective device shall be located so that it meets the visibility requirements specified in any applicable SAE Standard or Recommended Practice. In addition, no part of the vehicle shall prevent a parking lamp, tail lamp, stop lamp, turn signal lamp, or backup lamp from meeting its photometric output at any applicable group of test points specified in Figures 1 and 3 of this section, or prevent any other lamp from meeting the photometric output at any test specified in any applicable SAE Standard or Recommended Practice. However, if motor vehicle equipment—for example, mirrors, snow plows, wrecker booms, backhoes, and winches—prevents compliance with this paragraph by any required lamp or reflective device, an auxilliary lamp or device meeting the requirements of this paragraph shall be provided. Clearance lamps may be mounted at a location other than on the front and rear if necessary to indicate the overall width of a vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle, and at such a location they need not be visible at 45° inboard.

   (2)  On a truck tractor, the red rear reflex reflectors may be mounted on the back of the cab, at a minimum height not less than four inches above the height of the rear tires.

   (3)  On a trailer, the amber front side reflex reflectors and amber front side marker lamps may be located as far forward as practicable exclusive of the trailer tongue.

   (4)  When the rear identification lamps are mounted at the extreme height of a vehicle, rear clearance lamps need not meet the requirement of Table II of Appendix A of this chapter that they be located as close as practicable to the top of the vehicle.

   (5)  The center of the lens referred to in SAE Standard J593c, ‘‘Backup Lamps,’’ February 1968, shall be the optical center.

   (6)  On a truck tractor, clearance lamps mounted on the cab may be located to indicate the width of the cab, rather than the overall width of the vehicle.

   (7)  The requirement that there be not less than four inches between a front turn signal lamp and a low beam headlamp, specified in SAE Standard J588e, ‘‘Turn Signal Lamps,’’ September 1970, shall not apply if the sum of the candlepower values of the turn signal lamp measured at the test points within each group listed in Figure 1 of this section is not less than 2 1/2 times the sum specified for each group for yellow turn signal lamps.

 (d)  Equipment combinations. Two or more lamps, reflective devices, or items of associated equipment may be combined if the requirements for each lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment are met, except that no clearance lamp shall be combined optically with any tail lamp or identification lamp.

 (e)  Special wiring requirements. Special wiring requirements shall be as follows:

   (1)  Each vehicle shall have a means of switching between lower and upper headlamp beams that conforms to SAE Recommended Practice J564a ‘‘Headlamp Beam Switching,’’ April 1964, or to SAE Recommended Practice J565b, ‘‘Semi-Automatic Headlamp Beam Switching Devices,’’ February 1969.

   (2)  Each vehicle shall have a means for indicating to the driver when the upper beams of the headlamps are on that conforms to SAE Recommended Practice J564a, April 1964, except that the signal color need not be red.

   (3)  The tail lamps on each vehicle shall be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady-burning state.

   (4)  The stop lamps on each vehicle shall be activated upon application of the service brakes.

   (5)  The vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit on each vehicle shall operate independently of the ignition or equivalent switch, and when activated, shall cause to flash simultaneously sufficient turn signal lamps to meet, as a minimum, the turn signal lamp photometric requirements of this chapter.

   (6)  Each vehicle equipped with a turn signal operating unit shall also have an illuminated pilot indicator. Failure of one or more turn signal lamps to operate shall be indicated in accordance with SAE Standard J588e, ‘‘Turn Signal Lamps,’’ September 1970, except when a variable-load turn signal flasher is used on a truck, bus or multipurpose passenger vehicle 80 or more inches in overall width, on a truck that is capable of accommodating a slide-in camper, or on any vehicle equipped to tow trailers.

   (7)  On all passenger cars, motorcycles, and multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses of less than 80 inches overall width:

     (i)   When the parking lamps are activated, the tail lamps, license plate lamps and side marker lamps shall also be activated.

     (ii)   When the headlamps are activated in a steady-burning state, the tail lamps, parking lamps, license plate lamps and side marker lamps shall also be activated.

 (f)  Activated lamps. When activated:

   (1)  Turn signal lamps, hazard warning signal lamps and school bus warning lamps shall flash.

   (2)  All other lamps shall be steady-burning, except that means may be provided to flash headlamps and side marker lamps for signaling purposes.

 (g)  Replacement equipment. Requirements for replacement equipment shall be as follows:

   (1)  Each lamp, reflective device or item of associated equipment manufactured to replace any lamp, reflective device or item of associated equipment on any vehicle to which this chapter applies, shall be designed to conform with this chapter.

   (2)  Each lamp, reflective device or item of associated equipment to which paragraph (1) applies may be labeled with the symbol ‘‘DOT’’, which shall constitute a certification that it conforms with applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

Cross References

   This section cited in 67 Pa. Code §  153.5 (relating to subreferenced SAE Standards and Recommended Practices).



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