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The Pennsylvania Code website reflects the Pennsylvania Code changes effective through 54 Pa.B. 2336 (April 27, 2024).

231 Pa. Code Rule 1031.1. Cross-claim.

Rule 1031.1. Cross-claim.

 Any party may set forth in the answer or reply under the heading ‘‘Cross-claim’’ a cause of action against any other party to the action that the other party may be

   (1)  solely liable on the underlying cause of action or

   Official Note

    The term ‘‘underlying cause of action’’ refers to the cause of action set forth in the plaintiff’s complaint or the defendant’s counterclaim.

   (2)  liable to or with the cross-claimant on any cause of action arising out of the transaction or occurrence or series of transactions or occurrences upon which the underlying cause of action is based.

   Official Note

   Subparagraph (2) permits a cross-claimant to raise a claim that another party is liable over to the cross-claimant or jointly and severally liable with the cross-claimant.

   The right to assert a cross-claim in a class action is limited by Rule 1706.1 to the grounds set forth in that rule.


   The provisions of this Rule 1031.1 adopted March 23, 2007, effective June 1, 2007, 37 Pa.B. 1480.

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