Rule 452. Collateral.
(A) The issuing authority shall release the defendant on recognizance unless the issuing authority has reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant will not appear.
(B) If the issuing authority has reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant will not appear, the issuing authority may fix the amount of collateral to be deposited to ensure a defendants appearance at the summary trial, which amount shall not exceed the full amount of the fine and costs.
(C) In determining whether it is necessary to set collateral and what amount of collateral should be set, the issuing authority shall consider the factors listed in Rule 523.
(D) If collateral is set, the issuing authority shall state in writing the reason(s) why any collateral other than release on recognizance has been set and the facts that support a determination that the defendant has the ability to pay monetary collateral.
(E) To be released on recognizance or to request a lower amount of collateral, the defendant must appear personally before the issuing authority to enter a plea, as provided in Rules 408, 413, and 423.
(F) The collateral deposited shall be in United States currency or a cash equivalent.
(G) The collateral deposited may be forfeited after conviction at the summary trial and applied to payment of the fine, costs, and restitution.
The term collateral is intended to convey the dual purpose of the amount of money that is deposited. First, the amount deposited is used as bail to secure the defendants appearance at the summary trial. Second, the amount deposited is used as security, and may be forfeited in the event of a conviction to satisfy any fine, costs, and restitution.
A defendant may not be penalized or denied a hearing because he or she cannot pay the full amount of the fine and costs as collateral.
For the purpose of paragraph (F), any guaranteed arrest bond certificate issued by an automobile club or association pursuant to 40 P.S. § 837 (1959) would constitute a cash equivalent.
Paragraph (G) was amended in 2016 to clarify that collateral may be forfeited for the payment of restitution as well as for the fine and costs that have been assessed by an issuing authority. See 18 Pa.C.S. § 1106(d) for the authority of a magisterial district judge to impose restitution on a defendant.
Rule 81 adopted July 12, 1985, effective January 1, 1986; effective date extended to July 1, 1986; Comment revised February 1, 1989, effective July 1, 1989; Comment revised May 14, 1999, effective July 1, 1999; renumbered Rule 452 and Comment revised March 1, 2000, effective April 1, 2001; amended April 10, 2015, effective July 10, 2015; amended June 10, 2016, effective August 1, 2016.
Committee Explanatory Reports:
Final Report explaining the May 14, 1999 Comment revisions published with the Courts Order at 29 Pa.B. 2775 (May 29, 1999).
Final Report explaining the March 1, 2000 reorganization and renumbering of the rules published with the Courts Order at 30 Pa.B. 1478 (March 18, 2000).
Final Report explaining the April 10, 2015 amendment concerning the setting of collateral published with the Courts Order at 45 Pa.B. 2045 (April 25, 2015).
Final Report explaining the June 10, 2016 addition of restitution to the list of items for which collateral may be forfeited after conviction published with the Courts Order at 46 Pa.B. 3238 (June 25, 2016).
The provisions of this Rule 452 amended April 10, 2015, effective July 10, 2015, 45 Pa.B. 2040; amended June 10, 2016, effective August 1, 2016, 46 Pa.B. 3235. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (376763) to (376764).
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